John Armstrong's University of Minnesota Speech

Minneapolis--May 15, 1999


My presentation is based upon documentation and photographs which will be displayed on these two screens. These slides are presented as visual aids and show relevant portions of documents that are often too large to be depicted in full. They show the documentary evidence behind this presentation.

For 35 years critics have called Kennedy's assassination a conspiracy. But long before the critics, the book writers, and the various government agencies that were established to investigate Kennedy's murder, there was one man who called the assassination a conspiracy. He was the first and his name was Lee Harvey Oswald. Oswald told Dallas Police Captain Fritz there was a conspiracy--months before... MONTHS BEFORE the word "conspiracy" was ever used publicly. Within 48 hours Oswald was killed--the first of over a hundred assassination related witnesses to die.

We cannot question Oswald, but we can piece together his life story from testimony, evidence, photographs, and documentation. I will begin by discussing the last 10 years of Oswald's life in chronological order. I will then show how evidence was manipulated in order to hide Oswald's true identity and conceal his connections to US intelligence.

In 1961 the British arrested Gordon Lonsdale for espionage (LEFT-SLIDE 1). Among his possessions were fake birth certificates and fake passports which gave Lonsdale dual identities. They learned that his real name was Konan Molodi, a native born Russian. Molodi spent his teenage years in California, learned to speak English fluently, and returned to Russia where he was trained in espionage. He took the name Gordon Lonsdale and posed as a businessman in England; but his real purpose was spying out British defense secrets.... Dual identities, the ability to speak Russian and English perfectly, and involvement with intelligence agencies are the tools of a spy. Lonsdale possessed these qualities at a young age... and so did Oswald.

In the early 1950's an intelligence operation began that involved two teenage boys--Lee Oswald, from Fort Worth and a Russian speaking boy who was given the name "Harvey Oswald", from New York. In 1952, these boys were brought together in New York City. They lived parallel but separate lives, often in the same city. The ultimate purpose of this operation was to switch their identities and eventually send Russian speaking Harvey Oswald into the Soviet Union. This is exactly what happened, 7 years later, when Harvey participated in a CIA sponsored defection program in 1959.

Lee and Harvey attended schools, worked at various jobs, lived in the same cities and created numerous paper trails. When the Warren Commission began piecing together "Lee Harvey Oswald's" life, they found substantial evidence of Oswald in two places at the same time--evidence which they never explained and often ignored. Warren Commission Attorney Albert Jenner wrote (LEFT-SLIDE 2) "our depositions and examinations of records and other data disclose there are details in Mr. Ely's memoranda concerning the Oswald's background which will require material alteration and, in some cases, omission". The evidence requiring "material alteration and omission" concerning Oswald's background is the key to understanding the lives of Harvey and Lee Oswald. Most of it was not printed in the Warren Volumes.

(RIGHT-SLIDE 1) This FBI document describes the statements of a woman who telephoned Mrs. Jack Tippit, of Westport, Connecticut the day after the assassination. The woman said she personally knew Oswald's father and uncle in New York City, who were from Hungary and promoted communism. This woman asked Mrs. Tippit to relay her information to Dallas authorities. This woman may have thought Oswald's relatives were communists, but in reality they were most likely working undercover for our government.

Lee Oswald was born in New Orleans in October 1939. His father died two months before he was born. At age 13 Lee was attending elementary school in Fort Worth, Texas. His friend and neighbor Richard Garrett described Lee as "the tallest, most dominant member of our group in grammar school" (LEFT-SLIDE 3). Lee and his mother left Ft. Worth in August, 1952 for New York. They stayed with Lee's 20 year old brother, John Pic, who was married and in the Coast Guard. Lee's other brother, Robert, was 18 years old and in the Marines.

From the time Lee arrived in New York in 1952 his life was filled with unexplained contradictions. (LEFT-SLIDE 4) John Pic told the FBI and the Warren Commission that Lee attended junior high a block from the Pic apartment, yet Warren Commission records (RIGHT-SLIDE 2) tell us Oswald attended Trinity Evangelical School in the Bronx--many miles north of the Pic apartment.

The Warren Commission tells us Oswald did not attend junior high and was placed in the Youth House for truancy. He was first seen by New York Psychiatrist Dr. Milton Kurian who described him as a very thin, short boy about 4'6" tall. Oswald was seen a few days later by Dr. Renatus Hartogs who also described Oswald (RIGHT-SLIDE 3) as "thin, malnourished, and reminiscent of children he had seen in concentration camps in Europe after the war". These two New York psychiatrists interviewed a short, malnourished boy--Harvey Oswald. A week later (LEFT- SLIDE 5) New York School health records, Warren Commission exhibits, recorded Oswald's height at 5'4" tall-nearly a foot taller than the boy seen by the psychiatrists. Oswald told Dr. Kurian he had been placed in Youth House for truancy. He also told Kurian that his brother would occasionally substitute for him and take his place in school. But which brother? Twenty-one-year-old John Pic and 19-year-old Robert were too old to be substituting for their 13-year-old brother in the 7th grade. The "brother" who was substituting for the thin, malnourished Harvey was probably the tall, (LEFT-SLIDE 6) well built Lee Oswald from Ft. Worth, Texas. Lee Oswald's 174 days of attendance at Public School #44 is recorded on these Warren Commission and FBI exhibits (LEFT-SLIDE 7). Harvey Oswald's truancy and placement in the Youth House is recorded on this Warren Commission exhibit (RIGHT-SLIDE 4); two records for two Oswalds in the spring of 1953--both Warren Commission documents.

This is (LEFT-SLIDE 8) Lee Oswald, in the 6th grade in Ft. Worth--the boy who lived at Pic's apartment in the fall of 1952. This is a photo of short, thin, (RIGHT-SLIDE 5) Harvey Oswald taken at the Bronx Zoo. When John Pic was shown this photograph, he told the Warren Commission "Sir, from that picture, I could not recognize that that is Lee Harvey Oswald". The Warren Commission attorney replied "that young fellow as shown there, he doesn't look like you recall Lee looked in 1952 and 1953 when you saw him in New York City?" Pic replied "No, sir". Harvey and Lee at age 13.

In the summer of 1953, Lee Oswald and his mother were living in New York City. In July, 1953, Harvey moved to Stanley, North Dakota where he introduced himself to 12 year old William Henry Timmer as "Harvey Oswald". (RIGHT-SLIDE 6) Harvey told Timmer of gang fights in New York City where he made weapons with razor blades stuck in potatoes, and of living all over the country. He showed Timmer a pamphlet on Marxism. Timmer wondered where this young boy would get such a pamphlet? Probably from his father and his uncle in New York City, who were alleged to be Hungarians and promoting communism.

Six years later, in 1959, Harvey Oswald was interviewed by news reporter Aline Mosby in Moscow. Mosby (RIGHT-SLIDE 7) quoted Oswald as saying "we moved to North Dakota". When Oswald was arrested in August, 1963 in New Orleans, he was interviewed by Lt. Francis Martello. He told Martello that he had moved from New York to North Dakota (RIGHT-SLIDE 8). But when Harvey travelled to North Dakota, Lee remained in New York City.

In in the fall of 1953 this Warren Commission exhibit (LEFT-SLIDE 9) shows Lee Oswald attended 62 days of school in the 8th grade at Public School #44 in the Bronx. At the same time this Warren Commission exhibit (RIGHT-SLIDE 9) shows an "Oswald" attended 89 days of school in the 8th grade at Beauregard Junior High in New Orleans. Once again, we have two different sets of school records published in the Warren volumes: Lee in New York, Harvey in New Orleans during the Fall Semester of 1953.

That following September, Lee Oswald's height was again recorded at 5'4" by his health chart (LEFT- SLIDE 10). When Harvey entered Myra DaRouses 8th grade homeroom class in New Orleans that fall, she described him as 4'6" tall, skinny, and small for his age. He asked Myra to call him "Harvey" and to this day when Myra is asked about Oswald she always refers to him as "Harvey." Myra's description of a short, skinny boy is nearly identical with the New York Psychiatrist's description of Oswald at the Youth House several months earlier. When a piano fell on Harvey's legs in early 1954, Myra drove him to the doctor and then to his apartment on Exchange Alley.

But the Warren Commission tells us Lee and his mother (LEFT-SLIDE 11) were living on St. Marys Street at that time. Their landlord, Myrtle Evans, had known Marguerite for 25 years and lived in the apartment next door. Myrtle and her husband Julian told the Warren Commission "she was a fine woman, intelligent, soft spoken-a beautiful woman with black hair. She used to be a fashion plate." (LEFT-SLIDE 12). Marguerite Oswald is standing next to her husband, Edwin Ekdahl, who was over 6 ft. tall. When Julian Evans saw her on TV, after the assassination he said, "she looked so old and haggard, and I said, that just couldn't be Margie" (RIGHT-SLIDE 11). "There's no other way to describe it, the change that has come over her. You wouldn't have recognized her if they hadn't told you who she was; she looked that different". Myrtle and Julian Evans knew that something was not right. The Marguerite Oswald they saw on TV (RIGHT-SLIDE 12) was very different from the woman they knew. Here's Marguerite Oswald looking up at 5'1" Marina Oswald, quite a bit shorter than the woman standing next to her 6 foot tall husband.

In New Orleans during the first half of 1954, we have Lee Oswald (LEFT-SLIDE 13) living next door to Myrtle and Julian Evans on St. Mary's Street while Harvey Oswald (RIGHT-SLIDE 12) is living 2 miles away at 126 Exchange Place. Two teenage Oswalds in New Orleans in 1954 and two mothers to look after them.

In the fall of 1954 tall, husky Lee Oswald entered the 9th grade at Beauregard. He got involved in a fight with Johnny Neumeyer. A fellow student, Ed Voebel, got some ice and attempted to patch him up. Voebel told the Warren Commission "Oswald's lip was cut and his tooth was knocked out". Voebel took this LIFE Magazine photograph of Lee Oswald (LEFT-SLIDE 14) showing the missing front tooth at age 15. In 1981, Oswald's body was exhumed from his grave in Ft. Worth. Neither x-rays (RIGHT-SLIDE 13) nor photographs (RIGHT-SLIDE 14) showed any missing or chipped teeth.

The boy in the LIFE Magazine photo with the missing front tooth was Lee Oswald. The person exhumed in 1981 with no broken or chipped teeth was Harvey, the person killed by Jack Ruby. I showed the LIFE Magazine photo to Oswald's 8th grade homeroom teacher, Myra DaRouse. Myra said this was not Harvey--not the young man in her home room. Myra was correct, the photo was of Lee.

While Ed Voebel and Lee attended Beauregard in the 9th grade in the fall of 1954, Harvey attended Stripling Junior High in Ft. Worth. Harvey, remembered many Stripling students, lived across the street from the school on Thomas Place--the same house Marguerite Oswald lived in at the time of the assassination. Harvey's attendance created Stripling school records which remained in storage at Stripling until the day after the assassination.

Additional confirmation that Oswald attended Stripling came from Robert Oswald. (RIGHT-SLIDE 15) In October, 1959, when Harvey defected to Russia, Robert Oswald told the Fort Worth Star Telegram his brother had attended Stripling Junior High in Fort Worth. (RIGHT-SLIDE 16) In June, 1962, when Harvey returned from Russia, Robert Oswald again told the Fort Worth Star Telegram his brother had attended Stripling Junior High in Fort Worth. Two years later (RIGHT-SLIDE 17) Robert Oswald told the Warren Commission that his brother had attended Stripling in Fort Worth. No one seemed to notice that records published in the Warren volumes said Oswald attended all of his junior high school years in either New York or New Orleans-never a single day at Stripling Junior High in Ft. Worth. Robert Oswald knew about Harvey's Stripling Junior High School attendance. He also knew about the two Oswalds.

Harvey Oswald left Fort Worth and returned to New Orleans in early 1955 where he and Marguerite began work at Dolly Shoe Company in New Orleans. The store owner and employees remembered Oswald as being a very quiet and physically small child. Owner Maury Goodman identified this photograph as Marguerite Oswald (RIGHT-SLIDE 18) who worked at his store. He remembered her because she was the only employee who refused to fill out a personal information form required by the company's insurance carrier. When she continued to refuse to fill out the form, he fired her. The Wednesday following Easter, in April, 1955, Louis Marzialle was hired as store manager. Louis observed Oswald working during the morning and told Mr. Goodman he was doing a poor job. After lunch, Louis fired Oswald. Here are Beauregard Junior High school records (LEFT-SLIDE 15) showing Lee Oswald did not miss a single day during the Spring 1955 semester. How could Oswald attend Beauregard Junior High and work at Dolly Shoe in the mornings from February thru April at the same time? He couldn't. Harvey and Marguerite (RIGHT-SLIDE 19) worked at Dolly Shoe during the day, while Lee attended Beauregard and lived with his mother (LEFT-SLIDE 16) on St. Marys Street--the good-looking woman remembered by Myrtle and Julian Evans.

In July of 1955, Robert Oswald was discharged from the Marines and visited Marguerite and Lee in New Orleans for one week. Robert told the Warren Commission (LEFT-SLIDE 17) "Lee was working for an export firm there in New Orleans". The export firm was Gerard F. Tujague, Inc., and the date was July, 1955.

Frank DiBenedetto was Oswald's supervisor at Tujagues. Frank told the HSCA (LEFT-SLIDE 18) Oswald had worked for Tujague's "a year to a year and a half". Gloria Callaghan, a secretary at Tujague's, remembered Oswald worked at Tujague's thru April of 1956 when she took a leave of absence to have her first child. Frank did not remember the month Oswald quit but did remember he quit to join the Marines. Lee Oswald left New Orleans in July, 1956, moved to Ft. Worth and joined the Marines in October. From Robert Oswald, Gloria Callaghan and Frank DiBenedetto we learn Lee Oswald worked at Tujague's from July, 1955 through April, 1956. The Warren Commission, however, says Oswald did not begin work at Tugagues until November. Why?

Because New Orleans school records showed that Oswald attended Warren Easton High school that September and October. This conflicted with Oswald working at Tujagues at the same time. So the Tujague employment records were changed. In October, Harvey Oswald wrote this note to the school saying (RIGHT-SLIDE 20) "we are moving to San Diego in the middle of the month." There are indications that Harvey did move to California. In early October of 1963, Harvey told Texas Employment Commission employee Laurel Kittrell that he had worked as a motor cycle delivery boy in California at age 16. (RIGHT-SLIDE 21). I'll discuss more of Laurel Kittrell's interview with Oswald later.

In the fall of 1956, "Harvey" moved to Fort Worth, Texas, and briefly attended Arlington Heights High School. Former classmate and neighbor Richard Garrett said (RIGHT-SLIDE 22) "he walked up to me in the hall at school. I remember I had to look down to talk to him and it seemed strange, because he had been the tallest, most dominent member of our group in grammar school. He looked like he was lost. He was very different from the way I remember him". Very different indeed. Garrett did not realize that the shorter and smaller Harvey (RIGHT-SLIDE 23) had replaced Lee. Two months later this Marine photo (LEFT-SLIDE 19) was taken of Lee Oswald. Harvey and Lee at age 17.

According to the Warren Commission, (LEFT-SLIDE 20) Oswald joined the Marines in October, 1956. His Marine medical examination lists a 3-inch mastoid scar behind his left ear from a 1945 operation. Lee Oswald was sent to Boot Camp and ITR training in San Diego, Aviation Fundamentals school in Jacksonville, Florida, radar school in Biloxi, Mississippi, transfered back to El Toro, California in July, and left for Japan in August, 1957.

Marine Allen Felde told the FBI a similar but different account of Oswald's activities. (RIGHT-SLIDE 24). Felde said he and Oswald were in Boot Camp and ITR training in San Diego, A & P School in Jacksonville, and Electronics School in Memphis. Felde said Oswald was constantly complaining about Eisenhower and writing leftist-type letters to senators. Felde and Harvey Oswald were still in Memphis in September, 1957, when Lee Oswald was in Japan. Felde was not interviewed by the Warren Commission and the FBI made no attempt to locate or interview fellow Marines who had served with Felde and Oswald in Memphis--while Lee was in Japan.

From Memphis, Harvey Oswald may have travelled to Columbus, Ohio where reports by the Columbus, Ohio Police Department say he briefly attended Antioch College in the fall of 1957--Ruth Paine's alma mater (RIGHT-SLIDE 25). He was asked to leave when he failed to produce high school graduation records.

In September 1957, (LEFT-SLIDE 22) Lee Oswald arrived in Japan. While overseas Lee never spoke Russian, read Russian newspapers, nor discussed Communism with anyone. He hated the name "Harvey" or "Harv", and was given the nickname "Ozzie".

Marine medical records show "Oswald" was twice treated for tonsillitis and given injections of penicillin (RIGHT-SLIDE 26). But according to this FBI report (LEFT-SLIDE 21), Dr. Philben, of Dallas, Texas had removed Lee Oswald's tonsils twelve years earlier--in January, 1945.

In October, 1957 Lee shot himself in the left arm with a .22 derringer. The entrance wound was closed with stitches and the bullet remained in his arm. Two weeks later an incision was made on the back side of his arm and the bullet removed. Two incisions--two sets of stitches--two scars. After Harvey Oswald was shot and killed by Jack Ruby an autopsy was performed by Dr. Earl Rose. Dr. Rose noted several of Oswald's scars in his autopsy report (RIGHT-SLIDE 27)--some were as small as 1/16". But no scars were noted for the upper left arm, nor is there a notation of a 3-inch mastoid scar which was listed on Oswald's 1956 Marine medical exam. It is not likely that Dr. Rose missed three noticeable scars. Dr. Rose also took 27 color slides of Oswald's body which are now in the National Archives. No upper arm or mastoid scars are visible. Harvey Oswald was prepared for burial and emballmed by Mortician Paul Groody. Groody was twice asked about scars on Oswald's arms. Groody said he had not seen any scars on Oswald's upper left arm. It was Lee Oswald who had the three-inch mastoid scar from the 1945 operation and two upper left arm scars from the self-inflicted bullet wound. It was Harvey who was killed by Jack Ruby and had no such scars.

Lee Oswald was close with three Marines-George Wilkens, Zack Stout and Bobby Warren. This photo (LEFT-SLIDE 24) of Lee was taken by Bobby Warren in Japan in 1958. They were together on Atsugi, Corregidor and Subic Bay. Stout and other Marines said "Ozzie" was always writing letters to his mother. This 1957 telegram from the Red Cross refers to Oswald writing letters to his mother on a weekly basis. Yet no letters from Japan can be found. Why? It is doubtful the handwriting in Lee's letters from Japan would match Harvey's handwriting. The FBI interviewed Marines who knew Lee Oswald in Japan, but their investigation was very superficial. They could have interviewed a number of Marines who worked, bunked, and went on leave with Oswald, like Zack Stout, George Wilkens and Bobby Warren. Instead they intentionally interviewed only eight Marines who barely knew Oswald and were unable to describe him.

While Lee was in Japan, Harvey worked at the Pfisterer Dental Lab in New Orleans. Palmer McBride worked with Oswald every day from October, 1957 through July, 1958. He and Oswald became close friends and often visited each other's homes where they played records and discussed astronomy. McBride probably spent as much or more time in his life with Oswald as anyone. They double dated, went to movies and attended meetings of the New Orleans Amateur Astronomy Association. McBride said that Oswald complained of President Eisenhower's not doing enough about the U.S. space program in view of the Russian's October, 1957 launch of Sputnik. Harvey quit Pfisterers in July 1958. Three months later, in November, Lee returned from Japan and was stationed at the Marine base at Tustin, California. Harvey (RIGHT-SLIDE 28) was stationed at El Toro, and assumed Lee's identity (LEFT-SLIDE 25).

Harvey used his time in El Toro to convince fellow Marines of his interest in communism and his ability to speak Russian. His proficiency with the Russian language has caused some researchers to speculate that he learned Russian at the Monterray school of languages in California. The next time you hear someone say that Oswald learned Russian at the Monterray Language school, ask them to name the month and year he attended? Was it during Boot Camp or Infantry training in California in 1956? In Jacksonville, Florida or Biloxi, Mississippi in the spring of 1957? In Japan with his mobile radar unit that travelled to the Philippines and Taiwan in 1957 and 1958? No. Lee Oswald never had the time to attend a Russian language school in Monterray or anywhere else, and never spoke a word of Russian while in Japan. When Lee returned to the United States in December, 1958, Russian speaking Harvey assumed his identity. It was Harvey who took the Russian language exam in February, 1959 while in the Marines. Harvey dated Russian language student Roslyn Quinn and together they spoke fluent Russian. Fellow Marines nicknamed him "Oswaldovich". But Harvey's sudden proficiecy in reading Russian newspapers, listening to Russian records and speaking Russian was just a game. In reality Harvey was preparing for his CIA sponsored "defection", while making sure fellow Marines remembered his interest in anything Russian. Harvey and Lee at age 19.

In December, Harvey's mother, Marguerite Oswald, suffered a work related injury and was treated by Dr. Milton Goldberg. During one of her visits, she told Dr. Goldberg "that her son wanted to defect to Russia". This was 10 months before Oswald's "defection".

Lee Oswald left the Marines, and moved to New Orleans, where he was registered in room "D" at the McBeth Rooming House. (LEFT-SLIDE 26) Captain Valentine Ashworth roomed with Lee and traveled with him to Ohio.

In September, 1959, Lee moved to Florida and began consorting with CIA operatives. Lee and an anti-Castro Cuban named "Mexicano" visited Mrs. Gladys Davis (LEFT-SLIDE 27) at her home in Coral Gables. (LEFT-SLIDE 28) Marita Lorenz first met Oswald, whom she called "Ozzie" in a CIA safehouse in Miami in 1960. Lee Oswald's activities in the Florida Keys were well known to former Congresswoman Clare Booth Luce. Sherrif Thompson, of Key West, Florida (LEFT-SLIDE 29) remembered when Oswald's 40 ft boat ran out of gas. Oswald placed a call to Dallas, Texas and received money by wire within a few hours. The money could have come from Jack Ruby who was running guns to Cuba. Neighbors told the FBI that Ruby stored guns in a rented house in Kemah, Texas. (LEFT-SLIDE 30) On the weekends the guns were loaded onto a surplus military landing craft and Ruby piloted the vessel to Cuba.

In September, 1959 Harvey was discharged from the Marines and obtained this Department of Defense ID card (RIGHT-SLIDE 29)--a card often issued to intelligence operatives. But the photo on the ID card was only half of (LEFT-SLIDE 31) Harvey's face--the other half was Lee. This ID card could be used by either Lee or Harvey.

On September 7th Lee Oswald's photo was taken (LEFT-SLIDE 32) and used for his 1959 passport application. (RIGHT-SLIDE 30) A week later, in Ft. Worth, Robert Oswald took this photo of Harvey. In October this photo of Lee (LEFT-SLIDE 33) appeared in the Fort Worth Star Telegram when he defected. Harvey and Lee at age 20--both known to Robert Oswald. (RIGHT-SLIDE 31)

In 1959, U.S. citizen Robert Webster also "defected" to Russia. In Moscow he met Marina Prusakova. After Webster was sent by the Russians to live in Leningrad, Marina also moved to Leningrad, and just happened to move into the same apartment building as Webster. There she again met Webster and conversed him--in English. Evidence of Marina's ability to write English before the assassination is abundant at the National Archives. There are dozens of examples of her near-perfect English handwriting on the backs of dozens of photographs and of papers where Marina has corrected Ruth Paine's Russian script. There are recipes in her English handwriting and this notebook in the National Archives is filled with page after page of Marina's English handwriting.

In January of 1961 Muhamed Reggab, a Moraccan exchange student, was dating Marina Prusakova back in Moscow. After the assassination Marina spoke English with her manager, Jim Martin. Martin said Marina spoke English quite well. He also said Marina told him about meeting and entertaining foreign ambassadors in their Moscow hotel rooms (RIGHT- SLIDE 32). She bragged about her contacts and access to high level communist officials and her travels throughout the Soviet Union.

Marina's repeated contacts with foreigners, communist officials and her travels from Moscow to Leningrad to Minsk while an unemployed teenager is suspicious. The ease with which she met U.S. defectors Webster and Oswald in different, very large cities, hundreds of miles apart, is more than suspicious--someone was directing her and someone was paying her way. The freedom she had to meet and marry Oswald, the ease with which she left the Soviet Union and her ability to speak and write English long before she knew Oswald are strong indications that Marina had intelligence connections.

On a recent trip to Beunes Aires, Argentina, I met Anna Zeiger whose family knew Harvey from the time he arrived in Minsk to the time he left. She said during the year and a half she knew Oswald, she never heard him speak a word of a word of Russian. Her father, who was Oswald's supervisor at the factory where they worked, spoke English and interpreted for Oswald until the day he left. Oswald did not want anyone in Russia to know that he spoke Russian. This provided him the opportunity to listen, read, and understand the conditions and events around him in secret. When he returned to the States, Oswald wrote a 50 page manuscript detailing his observations in Russia. Published in Volume 16 of the Warren volumes, it is replete with minute detail, facts and data--not the type of information recorded by a tourist or temporary resident of Russia. LET'S THINK AGAIN ABOUT HARVEY AND MARINA. Oswald spoke Russian before he left the United States, but while in Russia pretended not to speak Russian. Marina spoke and wrote English while in Russia, but when they came to the U.S. in 1962 she pretended not to speak English. Marina lied when she told the Warren Commission that Oswald wanted her to speak Russian in order to help him maintain his proficienty in Russian. The truth is she did not want anyone to know that she spoke English because it might cause Dallas residents to wonder where she learned English. The Dallas Russian community already wondered how she was able to meet and marry Oswald in 5 weeks, and then leave Russia. If they knew Marina could speak and write English while in Russia, they just might suspect her of being a spy. It is reasonable to conclude that both Marina and Harvey were likely connected to their countries' respective intelligence agencies.

From 1959 through 1962, Russian medical records, State Department Security memos, letters to Oswald, CIA and FBI memos all refer to Oswald as "Harvey". The merging of Harvey Oswald with Lee Oswald's background had been successful. Harvey was observing conditions in Russia while Lee was working in New Orleans, Texas and Florida with CIA operatives.

By June, 1960 J. Edgar Hoover was aware of an Oswald in the States and an Oswald in Russia. This FBI memo (LEFT-SLIDE 34), warning of an Oswald imposter in the U.S., should have prompted a small army of FBI agents to locate the Oswald imposter and find out who he was and what he was up to. Yet nothing was done-not a single investigation of the Oswald imposter is known to exist. This lack of investigation strongly suggests that FBI officials were informed of the Oswald defection program and called off their search for the Oswald imposter.

CIA contact Marita Lorenz (LEFT-SLIDE 35) met Lee Oswald for the 2nd time at a CIA safehouse in Miami in 1960 and several times at CIA training camps in the Florida everglades in 1961. There are FBI reports of Oswald attempting to purchase trucks from (LEFT-SLIDE 36) Bolton Ford in New Orleans in January, 1961, visiting the (LEFT-SLIDE 37) Dumas and Milnes Chevrolet Dealership in New Orleans in May, 1961 (LEFT-SLIDE 38), meeting with Robert Taber in Havana in July, with (LEFT-SLIDE 39) Ray Carnay in Dallas, Oswald's arrest in the fall of 1961 (LEFT-SLIDE 40) by Officer Charles Noto in New Orleans. In 1961 Oswald and Jack Ruby were seen boarding a plane to Cuba by Key West airport manager Nick Faraldo. In late 1961 and early 1962 (LEFT-SLIDE 41) Oswald was engaged in disruptive activities with Steve Landesberg in New York. All of these people thought they had met the person accused of shooting President Kennedy. But they were mistaken--Harvey was in Russia at that time. These well intentioned people met or came in contact with Lee Oswald--not Harvey. Even though Lee and Harvey were not identical, they looked similar enough to deceive and fool those with whom they came in contact. Look alikes are often used by the intelligence community. A perfect example are Patricio and Antonio De La Guardia (LEFT-SLIDE 42)--identical twin brothers. They were Castro's top intelligence agents.

Harvey and Marina left Russia in May, 1962 for Texas. In Ft. Worth, Oswald impressed local Russian emigrees with his near perfect command of the Russian language. George DeMohrenschildt, a native speaking Russian emigree, said Harvey preferred speaking Russian to English. They often discussed classical (RIGHT-SLIDE 33) Russian literature--in the Russian language. The Warren Commission would like us to believe this high school dropout taught himself Russian by reading Russian newspapers at age 19 in California. In reality Harvey had been speaking Russian since childhood.

When John Pic first saw "Harvey", upon his return from Russia, Pic told the Warren Commission (RIGHT-SLIDE 34) "the Lee Harvey Oswald I met in November, 1962 was not the same Lee Oswald I had known 10 years previous". He was (RIGHT-SLIDE 35) "much thinner, didn't have as much hair, different facial features, his face was rounder, he seemed more slender, he had less hair, eyes seemed sunken, and he no longer had a bull neck". Oswald wrote his name in Pic's address book as "Harvey" (RIGHT-SLIDE 36). When the Warren Commission attorney asked Pic how he looked compared with when Pic had last seen him, (RIGHT-SLIDE 37) Pic replied "I would never have recognized him, sir".

In the summer of 1962, Harvey and Marina were living in Ft. Worth. Harvey was interviewed by the FBI in June, and again in August. At the same time Lee Oswald was living in New Orleans in a small apartment above the Court of Two Sisters restaurant in the French Quarter. The FBI was aware of Lee Oswald and his whereabouts. The manager of the restaurant, Gene Davis, was an FBI informant (LEFT-SLIDE 43).

Through 1962 and early 1963 the activities of Harvey and Lee had no apparent relationship to the impending assassination--still 9 months away. But by the spring of 1963 things began to change. In March, when Harvey and Marina were living on Neeley Street, a letter was found by a Memphis attorney in the mail box at the Carousel Club addressed to Jake Rubenstein. The return address was "Lee Oswald, 1106 Diceman Avenue, Dallas, Texas".

In the summer 1963, while Harvey was working at the Reilly Coffee Company in New Orleans, Lee was living in Dallas, Texas. Marshall Hicks, an employee of Western Union, delivered several telegrams to Oswald at 1501 W. 7th, in Fort Worth. Jack Ruby's girlfriend, Dorothy Marcum, remembered that Oswald worked for Ruby. Mechanic Robert Roy said Oswald drove Ruby's car to and from his garage on many occasions. In Ruby's club, Oswald struck up a conversation with Frances Hise and offered to buy her a drink. On another she noticed as Oswald came in the back door of the Carousel Club and Ruby casually said "hi, Ozzie". Ruby later joined "Ozzie" in the back room. Ruby employees William Crowe, Wally Weston, Dixie Lynn, Kathy Kay and others claim to have seen Oswald in Ruby's club. Dozens of people (LEFT-SLIDE 44) saw Oswald and Ruby together in the summer and fall of 1963--precisely when Harvey and Marina were living on Magazine Street in New Orleans. It was Lee Oswald who knew and associated with Jack Ruby in the summer of 1963 and may have known Ruby when he was running guns to Cuba.

In August, Harvey was arrested in New Orleans while passing out "Fair Play for Cuba Literature". The Warren Commission asked John Pic (RIGHT-SLIDE 38) "Do you recognize the young man handing out the leaflets?" Pic replied "No, sir, I would be unable to recognize him". For the 7th time during his Warren Commission testimony, John Pic refused to identify Harvey Oswald as his brother.

Helping Harvey pass out leaflets was Charles Hall Steele, (RIGHT-SLIDE39) an FBI informant. While Oswald was passing out leaflets he was observed by CIA Agent William Gaudet, filmed by FBI informant ??? Oquinn, a film that was later shown on national television. Oswald was confronted by three Cubans and the police were called. The arresting officer thought the leafletting incident was a staged event, designed to draw attention. (RIGHT-SLIDE 40) The officer was correct, but was unaware that two of the Cubans-Carlos Bringuier and Miguel Cruz-were FBI informants and the third, Celso Hernandez, was a CIA contact. Oswald and the Cubans were arrested and taken to jail. In jail Oswald summoned and spoke with FBI Agent John Quigley. A week later Oswald was invited to discuss his pro-Castro views on WDSU radio. Moderating the discussion was Bill Stuckey, an FBI informant. Panelists included FBI informant Carlos Bringuier and Edward Scannel Butler, head of the Information Counsel of the Americas--a CIA sponsored and funded organization. Had we known in 1963 that everyone involved with the leafletting incidents and the radio discussions were connected to either the FBI or CIA, we would not so easily accepted the medias portrayal of Oswald as a supporter of Castro and Communism. We would have asked why the accused assassin of President Kennedy was surrounded by FBI and CIA people. We might have realized that Oswald was not a supporter of Castro but rather a government sponsored agitator.

But here was this ex-Russian defector, with a Russian wife, filmed and arrested while passing out literature in support of Castro and Communism on the streets of New Orleans. In the summer of 1963, the setting up of Oswald as a "patsy" began.

In September, with Harvey and Marina still in New Orleans, Cliff Shasteen cut Lee Oswald's hair in his Irving, Texas barber shop. Shasteen told the Warren Commission that Lee Oswald (LEFT-SLIDE 45) had nearly black hair and a widow's peak, but Harvey's hair was (RIGHT-SLIDE 41) medium brown and he did not have a widow's peak. Shasteen told the FBI that Oswald drove the Paine's car to his barber--but Oswald couldn't drive. Shasteen often saw Oswald at the Paines house, a few blocks away, and assumed he lived there--but Oswald was living in New Orleans. Across from Shasteen's was a grocery store owned by Leonard Hutchinson who remembered Oswald as a customer.

In early September, with Harvey and Marina still in New Orleans, Antonio Veciana observed his long time CIA contact David Atlee Phillips meeting with Oswald in Dallas. The meeting took place at the Southland Building, a few blocks from Jack Ruby's Carousel Club. Why would Phillips, head of Cuban Propaganda for the CIA, meet with Lee OswaId? Because the plot to kill Kennedy depended heavily on Lee Oswald. From September through November of 1963 Lee Oswald was used to impersonate Harvey in a series of events designed to set up "Harvey as the assassin and implicate Cuba as his sponsor. It is not unreasonable to speculate that David Phillips masterminded this plan. After the assassination, Phillips received, directed and controled inquiries to the CIA station in Mexico City regarding Oswald's visits to Mexico.

Lee Oswald was sent to Houston, Texas where he attempted to purchase four high powered rifles from Robert McKeown. But Mckeown was leary of Oswald and refused his offer. McKeown told the House Select Committee "that is what puzzled me, why would he come to me to buy rifles". McKeown may have been puzzled, but it made perfect sense to those directing Oswald. McKeown had provided Castro with rifles and arms during the Cuban revolution (LEFT- SLIDE 46). McKeown was also a very close personal friend of Castro. Purchasing rifles from Castro's close friend and gunrunner and using those rifles to assassinate Kennedy would have placed the blame for Kennedy's assassination on Castro and caused a public outcry for an invasion of Cuba. The U.S. would invade Cuba, overthrow Castro, and avenge the CIA's loss at the Bay of Pigs.

But Mckeown did not sell rifles to Lee Oswald. Oswald left and continued to impersonate Harvey. In Mexico City an Oswald attempted to secure a visa to Cuba. But this Oswald, photographed in the Cuban Embassy, was unrecognized by Embassy personnel after the assassination. This Oswald visited the Russian embassy and spoke Russian so poorly, that he and the Russian embassy personnel had to speak English. When Oswald telephoned the Russian embassy, the conversation was recorded. The day after the assassination J. Edgar Hoover told Lyndon Johnson "we have up here the tape recording and the photograph of the man who was at the Soviet embassy using Oswald's name. That picture and tape recording do not correspond to this man's voice, nor to his appearance. In other words, Mr. President, it appears that there is a second person who was at the Soviet embassy down there." A second Oswald in Mexico City and Hoover and Lyndon Johnson knew about it the evening of the assassination.

Placing Oswald in Mexico City was an important step in linking Oswald to Cuba. But the FBI had little evidence that Oswald was ever in Mexico City. Aware of the problem, CIA Agent David Phillips offered a Cuban embassy employee a large sum of money to say that he and his wife met Oswald in Mexico City. The attempt failed. Nine months later, in July 1964, it was Marina who conveniently provided the FBI with circumstantial evidence that placed Oswald in Mexico City. But it was the CIA, most notably through David Phillips, Frank Sturgis, and friendly media assets, who continued to try to link Oswald with Cuba.

Oswald was allegedly in Mexico from September 26 to October 3. But Mr. Price told the Warren Commission that Oswald practiced at the Sports Drome Rifle Range in Dallas on September 28. In New Orleans, an Oswald bragged about his recent trip to Cuba where he met Castro. An Oswald applied for a job with the Texas Employment Commission and the Semtner Drug Store and visited Sylvia Odio and her sister in Dallas, all at the same time an Oswald was in Mexico City.

On October 3, an Oswald left Mexico and arrived at Laredo, Texas by bus. The same day, 450 miles away in Dallas, an Oswald was interviewed by Harry Sanderson of the Texas Employment Commission. The FBI was aware of this conflict and stated, "It appears from the above information highly improbable that Oswald could have travelled from Laredo, Texas to Dallas on October 3 in time to appear personally at the Texas Employment Commission." The FBI suppressed this memo. On the evening of October 3, an Oswald registered at the YMCA in Dallas. The same evening an Oswald spent the night in Alice, Texas, a small town near Laredo. The following day, October 4, an Oswald applied for a job at radio station KOPY in Alice, Texas. He was interviewed by General Manager Laymon Stewart and engineer Robert Janca and told them he had just returned from Mexico. Both men identified Oswald as the man they had interviewed. That evening Dallas Attorney Carroll Jarnagin saw an Oswald at the Carousel Club talking with Jack Ruby. But according to Ruth Paine in these FBI reports, Oswald spent the night of October 4th, 5th and 6th at her house in Irving, Texas. (CE2124)

Former Army Intelligence Officer Richard Case Nagel knew one of the Oswalds. He was aware of an impending assassination attempt on President Kenendy and informed the FBI. Wanting no part of a conspiracy, he walked into the State National Bank in El Paso, fired shots into the ceiling, and waited to be arrested. When he was searched, the police found a photocopy of an ID card belonging to Lee Harvey Oswald. (LEFT-SLIDE 47). When Harvey Oswald was arrested after the assassination a similar ID card was found (RIGHT-SLIDE 42). The photographs and signatures on the two cards are different. Two different ID cards for two Oswalds. Also taken from Nagell was a list that contained the names of six CIA agents.

Laurel Kittrell, of the Texas Employment Commission, interviewed Harvey Oswald in early October. Two weeks later, while Harvey was working at the Book Depository, she interviewed a second Oswald. Mrs. Kittrell realized this Oswald was not the same person she had previously interviewed. She remembered they were very, very similar--but different people. (LEFT- SLIDE 48) She remembered they were "very much alike in size, shape and outline, generally, there was a marked difference between them in bearing and manner'. Mrs. Kitrell's interview of two Oswalds would have explained an Oswald in New Orleans and an Oswald in Dallas at the same time, the sightings of an Oswald in Mexico and an Oswald in the U.S. at the same time, and many of the pre-assassination sightings of Lee Oswald while Harvey was working at the Book Depository. Mrs. Kittrell gave a thirty-page statement to the U.S. Attorney in Dallas. Her statement was hand carried to the Warren Commission by the Secret Service. But her 30-page statement and subsequent 90-page manuscript in which she discusses her interviews of the two Oswalds, were ultimately ignored and suppressed.

Harvey continued to work weekdays at the Book Depository without missing a day of work. (RIGHT-SLIDE 43) On Thursday, October 31 Lee target practiced at the Sports Drome Rifle Range-making himself known to fellow shooters. He applied for a job at the Statler Hilton Hotel, a high rise building in downtown Dallas. On Friday, November 1, Lee purchased ammunition at Morgan's Gun Shop. On November 4th, Lee visited Dial Ryders gun shop to have a scope mounted on his rifle even though the gun purchased from Klein's came with a scope already mounted. On Thursday afternoon, November 7th, Oswald, wife and child arrived at the Furniture Mart in Irving in a 1958 blue Ford. They spoke with Gertrude Hunter and Edith Whitworth about furniture for their new apartment. Oswald applied at the Salvation Army for assistance giving Ruth Paine as a reference. Oswald shopped at Hutchinson's and Minyards Grocery in Irving. Lee continued to drive Ruth Paine's car and get his hair cut at Shasteen's Barber Shop. On November 9, Lee was at the Downtown Lincoln Mercury dealership where he test drove a car at excessive speeds and said he would soon have enough money to buy a car. On November 16, he applied for a job at the Southland Hotel Parking garage and asked if the building had a good view of downtown Dallas. Once again, these sightings occurred while Harvey was either working at the Book Depository or was at the Paine's house in Irving. A rifle with a scope, ammunition, target practice, tall buildings from which to shoot the President, and enough money within a few weeks to buy a new car. The framing of Harvey as the assassin was nearly complete.

A week before the assassination (LEFT-SLIDE 49) Jack Ruby and Lee Oswald were at the New Port Motel in Morgan City, La. Corrine Villard, who had known Ruby since 1947, spoke with Ruby and Oswald for a half an hour. Later, in New Orleans, (LEFT-SLIDE 50) Lee was seen with David Ferrie, Gene Davis, and three unidentified men in an apartment above the Court of Two Sisters restaurant in New Orleans. Gene Davis, the manager of the restaurant, knew Oswald and was an active FBI informant.

On November 20, Harvey arrived for work a the Book Depository at 8:00 am. An hour later Lee Oswald was eating breakfast at the Dobbs House Restaurant in Oak Cliff and was remembered by several employees. A half hour later (LEFT-SLIDE 51) Lee was picked up a mile away at the Beckley Street entrance to the R. L. Thornton Expressway while hitch hiking. He introduced himself to the driver as "Lee Harvey Oswald" and said his 4 foot long package, wrapped in brown paper, contained curtain rods. The driver, Ralph Yates, dropped Oswald off at Elm and Houston in front of the Texas School Book Depository. This was Wednesday, two days before the assassination.

(RIGHT-SLIDE 44) The same day a package was mailed from Irving, Texas to Lee Oswald at 2515 W. 5th St--the Paine's address. It was not delivered because there was $.12 postage due. The package, held at the post office and later opened by U.S. Post Office Inspector Harry Holmes, contained "a long brown bag opened at both ends"--similar to the brown bag found by the Dallas Police in the Book Depository. Had Oswald received and opened the package he would have unwittingly placed his fingerprints on the brown bag--a bag that could have been conveniently placed on the 6th floor of the Book Depository. The expected delivery of a package could have been the reason for Harvey's uncharacteristic trip to Irving on Thursday evening.

That evening Harvey spent the night at the Paine residence. Thirteen miles away, in Oak Cliff, a young man knocked on the apartment door of an SMU Professor at 223 S. Ewing. When he asked for Jack Ruby, Helen Mcintosh directed the young man to Rubys adjoining apartment. The following day Helen recognized the young man as "Lee Harvey Oswald".

On November 22, Harvey Oswald left the Paines at 7:30 am and rode to work with Wesley Frazier, arriving at the Book Depository at 8:00 am. Harvey was seen by fellow employees in the building continuously until 12:15 pm. (RIGHT-SLIDE 45) At 7:30 am, 13 miles away in Oak Cliff, Dub Stark arrived at his Top Ten Record Store to find Lee Oswald waiting for him. News reporter Earl Golz interviewed Stark about Oswald's early morning visit. Stark said (LEFT-SLIDE 52) Oswald purchased a ticket for the Dick Clark show and then returned a short time later and purchased another ticket. This time, Officer J.D. Tippett was in the store. At 9:30 am, with Harvey working at the Book Depository, (LEFT-SLIDE 53) Lee Oswald entered the Jiffy Store on Industrial Blvd.--a mile from the Book Depository. He brought two beers to store clerk Fred Moore and was asked for identification. He produced a Texas drivers license with the name Lee Oswald. Moore remembered the birth date as October, 1939.

Minutes before the assassination several witnesses, including Arnold Rowland, Carolyn Walther, Ruby Henderson, Richard Carr and Ron Fisher saw two men on the 6th floor-one wearing a white shirt and holding a rifle; the other wearing a dark shirt or jacket. Why would anyone intending to assassinate the President of the United States allow himself to be seen holding a rifle in a building overlooking the parade route? The only reason is so that witnesses could later describe that person to the police. It was Lee Oswald, wearing a white shirt and holding a rifle, who was seen on the 6th floor of the Book Depository. Harvey, wearing a brown shirt, was in the lunchroom on the 2nd floor.

(RIGHT-SLIDE 46) Harvey, wearing a brown shirt, left the lunchroom, walked out the front door of the Book Depository, boarded a bus and then took a cab to his rooming house in Oak Cliff. Richard Randolph Carr saw two men on the 6th floor, one who walked toward Carr on Houston, got into a light colored Nash Rambler station wagon which drove north toward the book depository. Richard Worrell may have seen the second man, who he later identified as Oswald, run out the back of the Book Depository toward the railroad tracks minutes after the assassination. Deputy Sheriff Roger Craig (LEFT-SLIDE 54) saw the Nash Rambler stop in front of the Book Depository. A man wearing a light colored shirt, who Craig identified as Oswald, came from the direction of the railroad tracks and got into the car. The car sped under the triple overpass and headed toward Oak Cliff. (LEFT-SLIDE 55) Marvin Robinson and Roy Cooper, who were driving the 1st and 2nd cars behind the Nash Rambler, also saw the man wearing a light colored shirt get into the station wagon.

As Harvey and Lee left Dealy Plaza, Officer J.D. Tippit was sitting in his patrol car two miles away at the GLOCO Station watching traffic cross the bridge from Dallas. Ten minutes later, Tippit left and sped south to the Top Ten Record Store, a block west of the Texas Theater, arriving about 1 o'clock. Tippit made a telephone call from the store and then quickly left.

The Warren Commission said Oswald arrived at his rooming house around 1 o'clock. He spent a few minutes in his room and was last seen at the corner bus stop wearing a light colored jacket and brown shirt. At the same time Lee, wearing a white shirt and jacket, was walking past the 10th St. Barber shop two blocks north of Jack Ruby's apartment. Lee passed the Town and Country Cafe, Marsalis Avenue, and was headed west toward 10th & Patton--two blocks away.

Harvey entered the Texas Theater shortly after 1 o'clock and went to the balcony. A few minutes later he purchased popcorn from Butch Burroughs at the concession stand. (RIGHT-SLIDE 47) Burroughs watched Harvey as he entered the lower level of the theater. (RIGHT-SLIDE 48) Harvey walked past Dallas Evangelist Jack Davis and briefly sat next to him. Harvey got up and walked to another aisle and briefly sat down next to another man. Harvey then got up again and walked to the concession area. It appeared to Davis that Harvey was looking for someone in the theater. Harvey's movements occurred while the opening credits to the movie were running--a few minutes before 1:20 pm. Twenty four people (RIGHT-SLIDE 49) were in the theater that day who could possibly have identified Harvey and verified the time he was seen in the theater, but their names and addressess, obtained by Dallas Police, disappeared.

While Harvey was sitting in the Theater, Lee was nearing 10th & Patton when Officer Tippit called him over to the squad car. Witnesses Jimmy Burt, Helen Markham and Jack Tatum saw Oswald walk to the squad car and talk to Tippit through the "rolled down" car window. (LEFT-SLIDE 56) Tatum, who drove within a few feet of Tippit's patrol car, said Oswald was wearing a white jacket and white t-shirt. Oswald handed something to Tippit, probably his wallet. Tippit got out of the car and was shot. Oswald started to leave, then walked around to the driver's side of the squad car towards Tippit, who was lying on the pavement. Oswald then carefully and deliberately shot Tippit in the temple (LEFT-SLIDE 57).

Witnesses Smith, Tatum, Callaway, Brock and Scoggins, who saw Tippit's killer, said the man was wearing "light colored clothing". Police dispatch's at 1:22 pm and 1:33 pm (LEFT-SLIDE 58) said the suspect was wearing a white shirt. Harvey, sitting in the theater, was wearing a brown shirt. Domingo Benavides, a few yards from Tippit's car at the time of the shooting, saw Tippits killer as he walked away. Benavides, some 15 feet from the shooting, watched as Oswald left the scene. Benavides said (LEFT- SLIDE 59) "his hairline kind of went down and square off instead of tapering off"--above the collar line. But Harvey's hair was not squared off (RIGHT-SLIDE 50)--it tapered well down his neck" and he was in need of a haircut.

Oswald passed cab driver Scoggins who told the FBI he could not be sure the person he saw in Oakland was actually identical to Lee Harvey Oswald. Oswald then passed Ted Callaway, who said Oswald had on a white shirt and a white jacket.

Witnesses to the Tippit shooting and witnesses who saw Oswald prior to the assassination on the 6th floor had difficulty recognizing the difference between Lee and Harvey Oswald-the same problem Laurel kitrell had when she interviewed both Oswalds at the Texas Employment Commission a month earlier.

A jacket was discarded at the Texaco station and found by police. But whose jacket was it? (LEFT-SLIDE 60) This jacket was size medium, yet all of Harvey's clothing was size small. This jacket had two laundry tags, yet the FBI could not match either tag to any of several hundred commercial laundries which they checked in the Dallas and New Orleans areas.

Police arrived at the Tippit murder scene and found the wallet left by Tippit's killer. The wallet was photographed by WFAA-TV (LEFT-SLIDE 61) and remembered by FBI Special Agent James Hosty. Hosty said the wallet contained identification for both Lee Harvey Oswald and Alex Hidell. Why would Tippit's killer leave a wallet at the scene of the murder? To identify Lee Harvey Oswald as the killer of Tippit and the President.

Lets suppose, for just a minute, that Oswald disappeared and was not located at the Texas Theater. When police arrived at the Tippit murder scene they found a wallet containing identification for Lee Harvey Oswald and Alek Hidell. They now had the name of a suspect in the Tippit murder. They would soon learn that Oswald was missing from work at the Book Depository. Harvey's address from Depository employment records (RIGHT-SLIDE 51) would lead police to Ruth Paine's house. There they would find Fair Play for Cuba literature with the names of Oswald and Hidell, the same names they found in the wallet. There they would find order blanks (RIGHT-SLIDE 52) from Klein's Sporting Goods for a Manlicher Carcano rifle, the rifle found at the Book Depository. Klein's records would show a Manlicher Carcano rifle shipped (RIGHT-SLIDE 53) to A. Hidell of Dallas--and A. Hidell was the name on the second set of identification found in the wallet. Had Harvey not been found in the Texas Theater, a nationwide manhunt would have begun for Lee Harvey Oswald. From film footage of Oswald passing out Fair Play for Cuba literature in New Orleans and his attempt in Mexico City to obtain a visa to Cuba, his presumed destination would be Cuba. The wallet and identification left at the Tippit murder scene sealed Oswald's fate, no matter where he was found.

The FBI and Warren Commission told us Oswald snuck into the Texas Theater and took a seat on the lower level. But Theater employee Julia Postal, police dispatches, and arrest reports say Oswald was in the balcony. Police officers entered the theater, ran to the balcony and began questioning theater patrons. Captain Westbrook and FBI Agent Bob Barrett, who had just arrived from the Tippit murder scene, entered from the rear of the theater. They were looking for Lee Harvey Oswald, his name obtained from identification found in the wallet. The police arrested Harvey, wearing the brown shirt, and took him out the front of the theater. They identified him by calling out his name, "Oswald" (RIGHT-SLIDE 54) to Julia Postal. They put Oswald in a squad car, and drove to Police headquarters. Detective Paul Bentley (RIGHT-SLIDE 55) then removed a wallet from Harvey's left rear pocket and found identification for Lee Harvey Oswald and Alek Hidell. The Dallas Police now had two wallets--both containing identification for Oswald and Hidell--but they didn't share that information with reporters or the public.

Bernard Haire, who owned Bernies Hobbie Shop next to the Texas Theater, noticed as a large number of police gathered. He went out the back door of his shop and into the alley. He saw the police take an unidentified white male out the rear of the theater, place him in a police car and drive off. He described the man as 25 years of age, dark hair, and wearing a light colored pull over shirt with dark pants. For years, Bernard Haire thought he had witnessed the arrest of Lee Harvey Oswald.

Harvey arrived at police headquarters around 2 o'clock. Back in Oak Cliff, Mr. T.F. White saw a red Ford Falcon quickly pull into the El Chico parking lot. This is 6 blocks north of the Texas Theater. The man and car appeared to be hiding behind a large billboard sign. Curious, Mr. White walked across the street toward the car. When White was within a few yards of the car, the driver looked directly at him, the quickly sped off throwing gravel with his rear tires. White wrote down the license plate number and make and model of the car. The license plates were traced to blue 1957 Plymouth owned by Carl Mather, an employee of Collins Radio. Mather was the best friend of Dallas Police officer J.D. Tippit. Mather was unknown to the Warren Commission and refused to discuss the matter with reporters. Years later Mather was granted immunity (LEFT-SLIDE 62) from prosecution and interviewed by the HSCA. Today, twenty years later, his interview was still classified (LEFT-SLIDE 63).

At 1:00 am on November 23rd, the day after the assassination, Harvey Oswald was arraigned for murder. Mary Lawrence was working the late shift at the the Lucas B & B Reataurant, next door to Jack Rubys Vegas Club. She was the head waitress and had known Ruby for 8 years. Mary told the FBI she saw Oswald and Ruby together in her restaurant shortly after 1:00 am., November 23rd, (LEFT- SLIDE 64) at the same time Harvey was in the Dallas jail. Within days she began receiving threatening phone calls. One caller said, (LEFT-SLIDE 65) "get out of town or you will die".

Harvey Oswald, double crossed and sitting in jail, was a very unusual suspect. Dallas Police Captain Fritz said, "you didn't have to sit there very long and listen to them talk to Oswald to realize that this guy had been trained in interrogation. By that I mean resisting interrogation." When Oswald told Fritz there was a conspiracy, he was ignored. When he remarked "now everyone will know who I am", he knew his work as a government informant was finished. When Oswald said, "I'm just a patsy", few people paid any attention to him". But following the assassination many people heard Oswald on TV say he was a patsy and insisting that he had not shot the President. One of those people was a CIA computer specialist, George O'Toole. O'Toole served with the CIA as chief of its Problem Analysis Branch. In his work he became familiar with a machine that measured stress in the human voice. When properly measured and interpreted, the Voice Stress Analyzer can accurately determine the truthfullness of statements. O'Toole obtained a tape recording of Oswald saying he did not shoot the president and ran the statement thru the VSA. (RIGHT-SLIDE 56) The chart of Oswald's statement revealed no stress. Lie detection experts confirmed that Oswald was telling the truth. He had not shot the President.

Captain Fritz told the Warren Commission that he had questioned Oswald on Saturday at 12:35 p.m. and showed him 8 x 10 enlargements of the back yard photos. Oswald told Fritz the photographs were fakes. Captain Fritz concluded the interview and Oswald was then returned to his jail cell. Fritz then instructed Detectives Stovall, Adamcik and Rose to again search the residence of Ruth Paine in Irving, this time with a search warrant. They were met at 3:20 pm by Irving detective John McCabe. McCabe remembers that Gus Rose found the back yard photos in Oswald's seabag. (RIGHT-SLIDE 63). Rose initialed and dated the photographs for evidence. The backyard photograph was arguably the most significant piece of evidence that convicted Oswald in the minds of the public. (RIGHT-SLIDE 65) Here was Oswald with rifle, pistol and a communist newspaper in a defiant posture. Researchers have argued endlessly whether or not the backyard photographs are genuine--a matter which remains in question....

If Fritz showed the backyard photos to Oswald on Saturday during his 12:35 p.m. interview, this was three hours before Dallas Police Detectives found them. (RIGHT-SLIDE 66) The Warren Commission was unable to accurately determine when Oswald was shown the backyard photographs and concluded they had been shown to Oswald "on the evening of November 23rd."

We know that Fritz showed Oswald 8 x 10 enlargements of the first backyard photo. A second backyard photo was obtained from George DeMohrenschildt. A third backyard photograph, exhibit 133-C (RIGHT-SLIDE 67) was found among Dallas Police Officer Roscoe White's personal effects after he died. Geneva Dees, his widow, told HSCA investigators that her husband had been quite skilled in trick photography (LEFT-SLIDE 70). Years later a photo with a "cut out" (LEFT-SLIDE 71) of the Oswald figure was found at the Dallas Police station.

Harvey told Captain Fritz there was a conspiracy and posed a serious threat to the conspirators. That threat was eliminated when Jack Ruby killed Harvey. With Harvey dead the CIA and FBI were free to manipulate evidence and suppress witness statements that linked them to Oswald. The FBI selectively chose documentation that portrayed Oswald as the "lone assassin" and a "nut".

The FBI provided selected reports of Lee Oswald's life and selected reports of Harvey's life for the Warren Commission. These reports helped create the legend of "Lee Harvey Oswald" as reported in the Warren Report. Authors such as Priscilla Johnson, Marguerite Oswald, Gerald Ford, and Robert Oswald supported the Oswald legend by publishing similar biographies. In doing so they helped keep the public from asking questions and focusing attention on Oswald. In reality, we should have focused on Oswald from the beginning.

By focusing on Oswald I have shown you a few examples of two people using Oswald's identity and their involvement in the assassination. In the next part of my presentation I will show how certain FBI officials manipulated the physical evidence and testimony in an attempt to keep the existence of two Oswalds secret.



One hour after Oswald's arrest, Hoover wrote (RIGHT-SLIDE 68) "Oswald made several trips to Cuba; upon his return each time we interviewed him about what he went to Cuba for and he answered that it was none of our business". But Hoover dared not make Oswald's 1961 trips to Cuba known because Oswald was in Russia at that time. From Mexico City, Hoover obtained a tape recording of Oswald's voice which disappeared--because it was not Oswald's voice. The CIA provided Hoover this photograph of Oswald in Mexico City (RIGHT-SLIDE 69), but it was not Oswald--in fact it was neither Harvey nor Lee. Hoover told Lyndon Johnson about the 2nd Oswald the evening of the assassination. A second Oswald was a major concern and suggested the likelihood of a conspiracy--foreign or domestic. After their conversation Johnson directed his aide, Cliff Carter, to telephone Dallas District Attorney Henry Wade and order him not to allege a conspiracy. Hoover then prepared an FBI report which named Oswald as the lone assassin--a report which was substantially completed within 48 hours of the assassination (LEFT-SLIDE 72)--before the Warren Commission was formed. On November 26th LBJ placed the investigation under Hoover's control--his trusted friend for many years. To keep various agencies from investigating Kennedy's murder and possibly uncovering the truth, LBJ created the Warren Commission and hand picked its members. The Warren Commission annoyed Hoover. He wanted complete control of the investigation with no outside interference.

The #5 man in the FBI, William Sullivan, said (RIGHT-SLIDE 70) "Hoover did not like to see the Warren Commission come into existence. He showed a marked interest in limiting the scope of it and taking any action which might result in neutralizing it". (RIGHT-SLIDE 71). If there were documents that possibly he didn't want to come to the light of the public, then those documents no longer exist, and the truth will never be known. All FBI reports were first sent to FBI headquarters in Washington for analysis before being passed on to the Warren Commission. Testimony that conflicted with the FBI's written report or hinted of a conspiracy was dealt with in several ways: (LEFT-SLIDE 73) testimony was either 1) suppressed 2) ignored 3) fabricated 4) altered or 5) destroyed.

Testimony that was suppressed included records that were withheld from the public or not published by the Warren Commission. Suppressed records include the FBI's report concerning the woman who knew Oswald's father and uncle in New York City, FBI reports that placed Oswald in two different locations at the same time, such as those from North Dakota and New York, the US and Japan, Russia and the US, and in New Orleans and Dallas--all at the same time. Laurel Kitrells 30 page statement concerning the two Oswalds was suppressed. Numerous FBI reports of a 2nd Oswald preceding the assassination and statements of people who reported Oswald and Jack Ruby together were suppressed. They suppressed their report of Irving Police Detective John McCabe who said the backyard photographs were found at 3:20 pm. These reports and records could have provided the answers to many of our questions 35 years ago. They would have helped uncover Oswalds true identity, his background, his connections to US intelligence, and efforts to frame him as a "patsy"--but these reports were suppressed. Today many of these records can be found in the National Archives. The JFK collection contains over 6 million documents, yet only 1/4 of 1% of these documents were published by the Warren Commission.

Testimony that was ignored includes the statements of Palmer McBride, Walter Gehrke, witnesses who saw Oswald and Ruby together, and witnesses who saw Oswald drive a car. Dr. Milton Kurian, who interviewed a very small, malnourished Oswald in New York, was ignored. Allen Felde who told the FBI he was with Oswald in Memphis, when Oswald was supposed to be in Japan. The FBI ignored Felde and failed to interview other Marines stationed in Memphis in order to determine whether Oswald was in Memphis or Japan or in both locations at the same time. The FBI interviewed twenty eight Marines who knew Russian speaking Harvey at the Marine Base in El Toro, California in 1959. But they ignored the statements of Marines who were stationed with Lee Oswald at the Lighter than Air Facility at Tustin, California at the same time. FBI agents became suspicious and began to comment on how unusual the investigation was because no agent was allowed to pursue any kind of a lead to its logical conclusion. Failing to follow through on productive leads suggests that someone was controlling the investigation and leery of placing new information on record which would conflict with the FBI's already completed report.

An example of testimony that was fabricated can be found in FBI documents. The FBI laboratory had possession of a brown paper paper bag which Oswald allegedly used to carry the rifle into the book depository. They were asked to determine if the paper used to make this bag was the same paper found in the shipping department at the book depository. The FBI produced these two reports: (RIGHT-SLIDE 72) one report said it was the same paper; another nearly identical report said it was not the same paper. One of these reports is fabricated.

An example of altered and destroyed testimony comes from FBI Agent Cadigan. He testified that the FBI received Oswald's possessions the day after the assassination and returned the material within 2 or 3 days. But when his testimony was reprinted in the Warren Volumes, his testimony had been changed. Another form of altered testimony is exemplified when an FBI Agent attempts to mislead a witness or coerce a witness into changing his or her testimony. For example, Ray Carney told FBI agents he met with Oswald on five occasions at the airport in Garland, Texas, in May of 1961. The agents told Carney that Oswald was in Russia at that time and that he was obviously mistaken Barber shop owner Cliff Shasteen told the Warren Commission about cutting Oswald's hair in late summer and Oswald driving Ruth Paine's car. FBI Agent Bardwell Odom told Shasteen that his statements contradicted other information. Shasteen told Agent Odum (RIGHT-SLIDE 73) "I don't care what it contradicts with, that's just the facts and that's it". When Palmer McBride told Air Force Intelligence Officers and FBI agents that he worked with Oswald in 1957 and 1958 in New Orleans, it contradicted Oswald's Marine service in Japan at the same time. To avoid dealing with McBride, the Warren Commission did not interview him. Instead, they interviewed his friend William Wulf. Warren Commission attorney Liebeler, aware that Oswald could not be working in New Orleans and in the marines in Japan at the same time simply directed his witnesses attention to different years. Liebeler told Wulf (RIGHT-SLIDE 74) "we want to inquire of you concerning possible knowledge that you have of Lee Harvey Oswald during the time that he lived in New Orleans during the period 1954-1955". Liebeler tried to resolve the conflicting 1958 time problem by ignoring McBride and misleading his witness.

There are indications that additional testimony was knowingly changed or destroyed by the Warren Commission. Warren Commission attorney John Ely's job was to assemble background information on Marguerite and Lee Oswald. This memo by Warren Commission attorney Jenner states (RIGHT-SLIDE 75) "our depositions and examination of records disclose that there are details in Mr. Ely's memoranda which will require material alteration and, in some cases, omission". Material alteration and omission of evidence from the backgrounds of Lee and Marguerite Oswald.

(LEFT-SLIDE 74) The FBI dealt with physical evidence in the same manner: the evidence was either 1) suppressed 2) ignored 3) fabricated 4) altered or 5) destroyed.

Much of the physical evidence was the personal possessions of Harvey Oswald and should have been provided to the Warren Commission. But from the beginning of their investigation the FBI was reluctant to give any original evidence to the Warren Commission. The FBI overcame this problem by obtaining permission to provide photographs in lieu of original evidence for most items. Some people might say "So what? What difference does it make if photographs are used?"

Here is an example of an original document (RIGHT-SLIDE 76). This original document could be checked for authenticity, origin, fingerprints, alterations, and so on. But a photograph (RIGHT-SLIDE 77) of the same document cannot be checked for anything and photographs can be easily manipulated. In most cases it was photographs that were provided to the Warren Commission and not original evidence. In many cases where original evidence was turned over to the FBI and photographed, the original evidence completely disappeared. Original evidence that disappeared included Oswald's New York School records, Stripling Junior High School records, and his teenage employment records.

Oswald's Minox camera is an example of evidence that was suppressed. At one time there were two Oswald files--one for Lee and One for Harvey (RIGHT-SLIDE 78). The FBI suppressed Harvey's file--it no longer exists. This letter (RIGHT-SLIDE 79 was written by Yale Professor Vladimir Petrov of the Slavic Language Department. Petrov offered his opinion that the author of a letter written by Oswald to Senator John Tower, was written by a native speaking Russian with an imperfect knowledge of the English language. Without knowing it, Petrov had correctly identified Harvey Oswald as that native speaking Russian. Petrov's letter was suppressed. When the FBI determined that Oswald could not have crossed the border from Mexico on October 3rd and been interviewed at the Texas Employment Commission the same day, that report was suppressed. When Oswald's address book was found at North Beckley it was sent to FBI headquarters in Washington and never returned to the Dallas Police. Why was it not returned? Because FBI Agent James Hosty's name was in Oswald's address book. Dallas Police Lt. Jack Revill took notice and told fellow officers the FBI was suppressing a lot of evidence.

Evidence that was ignored included FBI Agent John Malone's report of Oswald's New York School attendance which he obtained from Judge Kelley's court file. Malone's report states that Oswald attended 174 days of school at PS 44 in New York while at the same time Oswald was supposed to have been truanting. Without attempting to resolve the discrepancy, Malone's report of Oswald's school attendance was ignored. The FBI interviewed so few of Oswald's school friends that the Warren Commission was getting more information about Oswald school friends from magazines. Attorney John Ely wrote (RIGHT-SLIDE 80) "once again let me urge that we should not have to rely upon LIFE Magazine for such a list. The FBI should undertake a systematic identification and interview of Oswald's closest school friends". But the FBI ignored their request. In fact not a single student from Oswald's year and a half in New York was interviewed. When Oswald's brother, John Pic, was shown photographs of Oswald handing out Fair Play for Cuba Literature in New Orleans, Pic said that person was not his brother. Neither the Warren Commission nor the FBI asked Pic if he had any idea who this man was. They ignored Pic's testimony and his attempt to tell them the person handing out the leaflets was not his brother. They ignored medical records which showed Oswald's tonsils had been removed in 1945, yet Oswald had tonsillitis in the Marines 12 years later. They ignored the fact that a 3-inch mastoid scar and two scars from self inflicted bullet wounds were not found on Harvey's dead body. They ignored telephone company employee Raymond Acker and his phone company records which listed Jack Ruby's repeated telephone calls to Oswald during the months preceding the assassination.

Evidence that was fabricated includes the backyard photographs, FBI photographs of a light meter--which the FBI used in an attempt to substitute for Oswald's Minox camera. When Harvey Oswald was employed at Dolly Shoe, Lee Oswald was attended Beauregard which created a conflict. When Harvey was worked at Pfisterers in 1958 Lee was in Japan which also caused a conflict. In an attempt to resolve the overlapping time problems fake W-2 forms were created. How do we know the W-2 forms are fakes? Look closely at these four forms. (RIGHT-SLIDE 81) They are from three different companies and two different tax years. Yet they appear to have been typed with the same typewriter. Two entries on each of these forms are identical--the address of 126 Exchange and Oswald's social security number. (RIGHT-SLIDE 82) I made transparencies of each W-2 form. When any of these W-2 forms are overlayed onto another, the address and social security numbers from each form match perfectly. You can overlay all four W-2 forms (RIGHT-SLIDE 83) on top of each other and the addresses match perfectly. You can overlay all four W-2 forms (RIGHT-SLIDE 84) on top of each other and Oswald's social security number overlays perfectly. Copies of these forms were sent to the IBM Corporation. IBM archivist Dawn Stanford noted that the characters, pitch and typewriter offsets on each of these forms are identical and, in her words "were typed with the same typewriter". If these documents were genuine and found in the Paine garage by Dallas Police, they should have the initials of the Dallas detectives who found them. They should be listed on the Dallas police inventory sheets. But none of these forms were initialed by any Dallas police officers (RIGHT-SLIDE 85) nor were they listed on Dallas police inventory sheets (RIGHT-SLIDE 86) nor photographed by the Dallas Police. The only initials on any of these W-2 forms are those of FBI lab technician Robert Frazier, and the first photographs of these fake W-2 forms were made by the FBI in Washington, DC. Clearly, the evidence shows they are forgeries.

Evidence that was altered can be identified by comparing Dallas Police photographs of Oswald's possessions with photographs taken by the FBI of the same evidence. The Dallas Police filmed 9 items in photograph #375. Oswald's Minox camera was among these items. The Dallas Police sent their undeveloped film to the FBI. When the FBI developed the film and returned the photograph of the Minox to the Dallas Police, (RIGHT-SLIDE 87) the Minox had disappeared. The FBI photographed a Minox light meter (RIGHT-SLIDE 88) and told the Dallas Police they had received only a light meter--not a Minox camera. They tried repeatedly to get the (RIGHT-SLIDE 89) Dallas Police to change their inventory from a Minox camera to a Minox light meter. The FBI ignored the many rolls of Minox film (RIGHT-SLIDE 90) found at the Paine garage and the photographs taken with Oswald's Minox camera in Japan (RIGHT-SLIDE 91). They ignored Dallas Detectives Rose and Stoval, Officer Gerald Hill and Assistant District Attorney William Alexander who all handled and identified Oswald's Minox camera. These people did not understand why the FBI insisted on saying that Oswald did not have a Minox camera. But to the FBI Oswald's ownership of a Minox spy camera implied connections to intelligence agencies--so the Minox camera was altered and became a light meter.

Evidence that was destroyed includes original New York School records, original Stripling Junior High school records and Oswald's teenage employment records. The Minox camera with Gus Rose's initials scratched on the camera was destroyed. The 5 rolls of 35 mm film that the Dallas Police used to film Oswald's possessions was destroyed. The wallet found at the Tippit murder scene disappeared and was probably destroyed. The list of destroyed evidence goes on and on. A significant record which existed and was destroyed was Oswald's Texas drivers license and file. The FBI knew about Oswald's drivers license from Fred Moore, manager of the Jiffy Store on Industrial Blvd. Oswald produced his drivers license for identification when he purchased beer from Moore on the morning of the assassination. The FBI certainly should have checked to see if Oswald had a Texas drivers license. But there are no records to indicate the FBI checked with the Texas Department of Public Safety. Oswald did have a license and it turned up at the Texas Department of Public Safety the week after the assassination. Mrs. Lee Bozarth, a supervisor (RIGHT-SLIDE 92) and six employees saw and handled Oswald's drivers license. A few days later Oswald's license and file were removed at the request of a government agency. At worst the FBI obtained and destroyed Oswald's license and file. At the very least, they ignored witnesses who said Oswald had a drivers license and were negligent for failing to inquire about Oswald's license with the Texas Department of Public Safety. The lack of interest they showed in Oswald's drivers license was intentional--because a drivers license would expose a 2nd Oswald.

If Oswald had a drivers license, then he had to have passed a driver's test and was able to drive. This would raise many questions: did he drive to Mexico, to south Texas, to Robert McKeown's near Houston, to the Furniture Mart with Marina? Did he drive Ruth Paine's car to Cliff Shasteen's Barber Shop and Hutchinson's grocery? Did he drive the Comet at the Lincoln Mercury dealership? If Oswald drove Jack Ruby's car in the summer of 1963 then he must have known Ruby? But if Oswald was with Ruby in the summer of 1963, how could Oswald have been working and living with Marina in New Orleans? The sightings and reports of Oswald driving a car pointed to a 2nd Oswald and had to be quashed.

This was accomplished by suppressing FBI reports and ignoring witnesses (RIGHT-SLIDE 93) who said Oswald could drive. The Warren Commission decided Oswald could not drive based upon the testimony of Ruth and Michael Paine and Marina and Robert Oswald. But Marina went further. Before the Warren Commission Marina was confronted by two witnesses who saw Lee and Marina together at the Furniture Mart in Irving. They described her clothing, her child, her hair style and mannerisms when they saw her at the Furniture Mart. But Marina denied being at the Furniture Mart. Marina denied every instance and every occasion in which Oswald was seen driving a car. She had no choice. If she admitted that Oswald drove, then she would have to explain who she was with and who was driving her around Irving while Harvey was working at the Book Depository. Whoever Marina was with, this man looked very similar to Harvey. She may have been with Lee, but we just don't know. We do know, however, that Marina told a French journalist in 1964 (RIGHT-SLIDE 94), "I had two husbands. Lee, the father of my children, an affectionate and kind man; and Harvey Oswald, the assassin of President Kennedy."

Marina's ability to provide convenient testimony and evidence to the Warren Commission was obvious and has concerned researchers for years, but few bothered to check details. When Warren Commission attorneys reviewed Marina's testimony (RIGHT-SLIDE 95), it caused staff Attorney Bert Griffin to call her a liar. The HSCA (RIGHT-SLIDE 96) compared her Warren Commission, FBI and HSCA testimony and issued a 29-page report that listed dozens of unexplained contradictions. Questions among CIA analysts prompted a series of investigations into her background (RIGHT-SLIDE 97). They concluded she had most likely been previously connected to the KGB.

I would like to conclude my discussion of the physical evidence by showing you how the FBI altered photographs taken of Oswald's possessions. Oswald's possessions were picked up by the Dallas Police from 1026 N. Beckley and Ruth Paine's house in Irving on November 22nd and 23rd. The Dallas Police established a chain of custody by initialing every piece of evidence and then listed that evidence on inventory sheets. The original Police inventory sheets are Warren Commission exhibits (LEFT-SLIDE 75). This chain of custody was broken when the Dallas Police secretly turned over Oswald's possessions to the FBI the day after the assassination. Unknown to the public, the evidence was taken to FBI headquarters in Washington. FBI document specialist James Cadigan began to test documents for fingerprints using a special brown colored ink. Documents from item #164 (LEFT-SLIDE 76) through 360 (RIGHT-SLIDE 98) were coated with the brown ink. But items 168, 169 and 175 were not treated with the brown ink. (LEFT-SLIDE 77) Those items were the fake W-2 forms. The reason they were not treated with the brown fingerprint ink on November 23rd is that they had not yet been created. A second coating was supposed to be applied which neutralized the brown ink and made it colorless--this was known as desilvering. But before Cadigan had time to neutralize the brown colored fingerprint ink, the documents were gathered up and returned to the Dallas Police. (LEFT-SLIDE 78) Cadigan said "time was of the essence and this material, I believe, was returned to the Dallas Police within two or three days. There was insufficient time to desilver it".

When the Dallas Police received their evidence back from the FBI on November 25th, they photographed the evidence. Some of the documents had been treated with the brown ink and some some had not. The Dallas Police used 5 rolls of 35 mm film (LEFT-SLIDE 79) to film the evidence and labeled each photograph with a small machine printed label (RIGHT-SLIDE 99). Before the Dallas Police could develop their 5 rolls of film, Lyndon Johnson ordered the FBI to take over the investigation. All evidence and the 5 rolls of undeveloped film were immediately turned back over to the FBI. The Dallas Police requested the FBI to develop their film and return photographs of the evidence to Dallas. Had their request been honored, the Dallas Police would have received photographs of hundreds of ink coated documents (LEFT-SLIDE 100). The Dallas Police photographs of these ink coated documents, taken on November 26th, would show that the FBI had obtained and examined Oswald's possessions several days before they took over the investigation. To keep their evidence handling secret, the FBI did two things. First, they took the original 5 rolls of Dallas Police film and cut out all of the inked documents. Specifically, they cut out frames 164 through 360 (LEFT-SLIDE 81)--nearly two hundred frames. They then spliced the remaining film together (RIGHT-SLIDE 101) and returned these 2 rolls to the Dallas Police. Police Chief Curry was notified of the missing frames, and wrote this letter (LEFT-SLIDE 82) to the FBI asking about the missing frames.

The FBI, incredibly, tried to blame the Dallas Police for the missing frames. They said the Dallas Police (RIGHT-SLIDE 102) had used "faulty technique" when photographing Oswald's possessions. The FBI then re-photographed frames #164 through #360, the inked documents, (LEFT-SLIDE 83) and returned FBI photographs to the Dallas Police. It is easy to tell which are FBI photographs and which are Dallas Police photographs. The FBI photographs all have hand printed labels, indicated by the red arrow. The Dallas Police photographs have machine printed labels.

The second thing the FBI did was to change the testimony of the agent who received Oswald's possessions from the Dallas Police, James Cadigan. Normally, witnesses were deposed and given the opportunity to review and sign their depositions. This was the case with nearly all Warren Commission witnesses--with the exception of FBI agents. Most FBI agents were not asked if they wanted to read and sign their depositions. This memo describes how FBI agents testimony is to be handled. (LEFT-SLIDE 84). It states "the proper way to handle transcripts of testimony before the President's Commission is to have the man who testified, after he has corrected his testimony and it has been reviewed by the Section Chief, the Division Head, Mr. Belmont and Mr. Malley, personally take the corrected transcript up to the Commission".

James Cadigan originally told the Warren Commission "time was of the essence and this material had to be returned to the Dallas Police within two or three days". This was three days prior to the FBI taking over the case. But Cadigan's testimony, according to the memo, was allowed to be changed and reviewed by the section Chief and Division Chief. By the time Cadigan's testimony was printed in the Warren Volumes (RIGHT-SLIDE 103), references to receiving Oswald's possessions and returning them within two or three days were deleted. The significance of Oswald's possessions under FBI control the day after the assassination cannot be understated. With no paper trail, and no chain of evidence, it gave the FBI an unlimited opportunity to manipulate evidence.

To understand which items of evidence were manipulated we must begin with the Dallas Police Detectives who obtained the evidence. According to Detective Gus Rose, (LEFT-SLIDE 85) they initialed every item and every document found. At the National Archives I spend the past month inspecting each available item of evidence. The Dallas Police were so thorough in their initialing of evidence that they initialed items as small as an address label and items as insignificant as an order coupon for LIFE Magazine. They listed these items on inventory sheets which became Warren Commission exhibits Stovall A and B and Turner Exhibit 1. There were 128 items listed on their inventory sheets (LEFT-SLIDE 86) and sent to the FBI. When the FBI returned Oswald's possessions to the Dallas Police two days later, the Dallas Police and FBI prepared a joint inventory of those items. But now there were 455 entries (RIGHT-SLIDE 104) which contained nearly 800 items. Most of these items were pamphlets and brochures relating to Castro, Cuba and Communism and did not belong to Oswald. Most of these items were not listed on the original Dallas Police inventory sheets and did not have the initials of the Dallas Police. It is hard to imagine the Dallas Police initialing a LIFE Magazine coupon, small bottles of aspirin (RIGHT-SLIDE 105) and then forgetting to initialize a large photograph of Castro, Cuban propaganda brochures, or socialist newspapers?

There is only one conclusion that can be drawn after handling the evidence and reviewing the original Dallas Police inventory sheets. Items of evidence that do not have the initials of Dallas Police officers and are not listed on original Dallas Police inventory sheets were simply not found by the Dallas Police. There is no proof whatsoever that these uninitialed items ever belonged to Oswald. For years we have assumed all of the evidence belonged to Oswald. In reality many items were probably planted and used to frame him. But which items were added? Numerous photographs taken in Japan, the Philippines, and Cubic Bay by Lee Oswald were added to Harvey's possessions to make it appear that Harvey had been in Japan. The fake W-2 forms were added to make it appear that Harvey worked at Pfisterers in 1956 instead of 1958. Cuban and communistic propaganda brochures were added to create the impression that Oswald was a supporter of Castro and communism. None of these items have the initials of Dallas Police Detectives and none are listed on the original Dallas Police inventory sheets. Today, in the National Archives, the items of evidence that do not have the initials of Dallas Police officers far outnumber the number of items that do have the initials of Dallas Police officers.

Now, I have a question for the audience.... How many of you realize that nothing that I have shown or discussed this afternoon has anything to do with the murder of President Kennedy? The Minox camera, W-2 forms, two Oswald wallets, drivers license, school records, backyard photos, altered evidence, suppressed FBI reports... these have absolutely nothing to do with the the murder of President Kennedy--nothing at all. But this suppression and manipulation of evidence has everything to do with hiding the true identity of Oswald, his background, his intelligence connections, and framing him as the assassin. Had the FBI presented unaltered physical evidence and testimony to the public 35 years ago, Oswald's dual identity and the setting up of Harvey as the "patsy" would likely have been discovered. Those responsible for creating the two Oswalds--our intelligence agencies--would have been linked directly to the assassination. To learn which intelligence agency was involved, we again turn to witnesses whose testimony was suppressed:

* the afternoon of the assassination Dallas reporter Seth Kantor was
provided with detailed biographical information on Oswald--before
Oswald's name was broadcast on radio or TV. The information was
supplied by Harold Hendrix, a CIA "media friend" who acted as a
conduit for CIA leaks.

* CIA employee Donald Deneslya (LEFT-SLIDE 87) read reports of a CIA
agent who had worked at a radio factory in Minsk and returned to the
US with a Russian wife and child--that Agent was Oswald.

* CIA officer David Phillips provided the Warren Commission with
information that Oswald was at the Russian and Cuban embassies in
Mexico City, then later admitted that the information he had
provided was false.

* CIA Agent Donald Norton said "Oswald was with the CIA, and if he did it
then you better believe the whole CIA was involved".

* Former CIA agent Joseph Newbrough said "Oswald was an agent for the
CIA and acting under orders".

* CIA paymaster James Wilcott said he had furnished money for the Oswald
project--code named RX ZIM (LEFT-SLIDE 88). He said it was common
knowledge among his group that Oswald was an agent of the CIA.

* CIA Agent John Garrett Underhill told friends, just before he died,
"Oswald is a patsy. They set him up. They've killed the President. I've
been listening and hearing things. I couldn't believe they'd get away
with it, but they did".

* (LEFT-SLIDE 89) Lyndon Johnson was convinced there was a plot and
that the CIA had something to do with it

* (LEFT-SLIDE 90) CIA Agent William Gaudet said "the man who probably
knows as much as anybody alive on all of this... is... I still think
is Howard Hunt"----CIA Agent and Watergate burglar E. Howard Hunt.

When researchers began to uncover indications of CIA involvement in the assassination, the CIA sent out this memo (LEFT-SLIDE 91). The memo offered suggestions to media assets on how to block and impede investigation of the Kennedy assassination by researchers. The media complied and has supported the Warren Commission findings while ignoring the work of the research community. Whenever a new book is published naming Oswald as the lone assassin, the author is interviewed on national television and his book reviewed by the New York Times. When new information is uncovered that suggests government involvement or hints of a conspiracy, that information is usually attacked, ridiculed or buried in a non-descript article in a small town newspaper. We have learned to doubt the sincerity of the media and question their credibility and motives. But we do not question the existence of a political iron curtain that keeps the work of the research community from reaching the public through the media.

With all of the criticism leveled at the Warren Commission over the years, it is rather ironic that we turn to the Warren Commission to see the best photographic example of Lee Harvey Oswald. This (LEFT-SLIDE 92) Warren Commission exhibit appeared in newspapers at the time of Oswald's "defection" in 1959. When each half of Oswald's face is viewed separately (RIGHT-SLIDE 106), it is easy to see that half of the photo is Harvey, and half is Lee. (LEFT-SLIDE 93)--a creation of the CIA. Exposing and understanding the two "Oswalds" will not solve the Kennedy assassination, but it does give us insight into the illegal covert capabilities of CIA operations and the ability of government agencies to manipulate evidence and concealed their knowledge and involvement with Oswald. We understand why witness testimony was altered and evidence fabricated. We finally realize why Harvey Oswald was not allowed to stand trial and had to be eliminated. After 35 years, many pieces to this puzzle have fallen into place while while others are still elusive--but if you understand who Harvey and Lee Oswald really were, who created them and who directed them, then you will know who was responsible for the assassination of John Kennedy. Thank you for listening.