Escape from the 6th Floor

by John Armstrong

Texas School Book Depository building

The building at the corner of Elm and Houston in Dallas was built in the late 1800's. It originally consisted of single wall and single floor construction. Single wall construction is where a single layer of wood is attached to one side of an exterior wall. Single floor construction is where boards are attached to the top side of floor joists with nothing attached to the bottom side of the floor joist. Today, modern buildings are "double wall" construction, and have layers of material attached to both sides of the walls and ceilings. In most cases, the second layer of material is sheet rock.

In November 1961 the building located at the corner of Elm and Houston, known for years as the Sexton Building, was being refurbished and given a new name--the Texas School Book Depository. There were 7 floors in the building, each with about 10,000 square feet, and a basement. New interior walls, partitions, updated lighting and sprinkler systems were added to the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th floors for new office space. Carpeting was installed in some of the offices, along with air conditioning. In 1963 seventy-seven people worked inside the building, some in the new offices and others in the warehouse space on the 1st, 5th, 6th and 7th floors. The stairway at the front entrance provided access to the 1st floor and the basement, and a newly installed passenger elevator carried office workers from the 1st thru the 4th floors. In the northwest corner of the building an old wooden stairway and two open-gated freight elevators were used by warehouse workers and provided access to all floors. The only other means of access to all floors of the Book Depository was a fire escape, attached to the outside of the building on Houston Street.

For the purpose of this essay we are interested in floors 5 and 6, which were used as warehouse space, and still had the old style single floor construction. It appears from photos that the material used on the floors consisted of thick individual boards that ran horizontally from girder to girder (see photo below). These floor boards were laid side by side and nailed on the top of the wooden girders. If one or more of these floor boards were lifted, or removed, there was direct access to the floor below.

Witnesses see two men on the 6th floor

Minutes before 12:30 PM, on the morning of November 22, 1963 many people observed two men on the 6th floor as the Presidential motorcade approached Dealey Plaza. Charles L. Bronson was using his home movie camera to film scenes outside of the Book Depository. At 12:24 pm, his camera captured the images of two men moving in the south­ eastern window of the 6th floor, an area that is now known as the snipers nest.

Carolyn E. Walther was standing on the west side of Houston Street about 50 feet south of Elm. Just before the motorcade arrived she looked up at the Book Depository and saw two men in an upper floor window, one of whom was holding a rifle with the bar­rel pointed downward. She described the rifle as being considerably shorter and fatter than the rifle found by Dallas Police. She said the man carrying the gun was blond or light haired and was wearing a white shirt. The other man was wearing a brown suit coat.

Ruby Henderson was standing across the street from the Book Depository and also saw two men on an upper floor of the building. She said one of the men was wearing a white shirt and the other man was wearing a dark shirt. Ruby said, "One of them had dark hair ..... a darker complexion than the other ..... You could see their head and shoulders, but not like they were leaning out."

Ronald B. Fischer was standing next to Robert Edwards on the southwest cor­ner of Elm and Houston directly across the street from the Book Depository. Fischer saw the head and shoulders of a white man in his late 20's, with light hair, wearing an open-neck light ­colored shirt, staring in the direction of the triple underpass. Following the assassina­tion Fisher was interviewed by the Dallas Police and shown photographs of Harvey Oswald. Fisher said the photos looked like the man he saw at the window that shot at the President, but would not say the photographs were the same man.

Robert Edwin Edwards was standing next to Ronald Fischer facing the Book Depository two or three minutes before the motorcade arrived. He saw a white man on the 6th floor wearing a light-colored sports shirt, open at the neck, and said the man had short, light, sandy hair. When shown photographs of Oswald after the assassination, Edwards said he could not be sure the photographs were the same man.

Tom Dillard, the chief news photographer of the Dallas Morning News, saw two men in the arched windows on the 6th floor of the Book Depository as the car he was riding in turned the corner from Main onto Houston.

Howard L. Brennan, a construction worker, saw a man sitting sideways on the windowsill prior to the arrival of the motorcade. Brennan said he could practically see his whole body, from the hips up. He said the individual was a white man in his early 30's, was fair complexioned, slender, possibly 5-foot 10, 160 to 170 pounds, and wore light-colored clothing.

Richard Randolph Carr observed a man looking out the top floor of the Book Depository moments before the shooting. Carr, like Carolyn Walther, said the man was wearing a light brown coat. He described the man as having an athletic build, wearing horn rim glasses, and a hat. A few minutes after the assassination Carr saw the same man walking toward him on Houston, constantly looking back over his shoulder. The man turned east on Commerce St, walked one block to Record St., and got into a 1961 or 1962 light colored Nash Rambler station wagon. I believe this vehicle drove north on Record St., turned left on Elm, and was seen by Deputy Sheriff Roger Craig as LEE Oswald hurried down the grassy knoll and got into this car at 12:40 PM. This incident occurred while Harvey Oswald, the man accused of killing President Kennedy, was riding in a city bus several blocks east of the Book Depository.

Across the street from the Book Depository as many as 40 inmates on the 5th floor of the county jail (see photo below) watched the two men as they "fooled around" with a scope on a rifle about 6 minutes before the shooting. Powell said the two men in the window "looked darker" than whites and were wearing "kind of brownish looking or duller clothes .... .like work clothes."

Seventeen-year-old Johnny L. Powell had been in the county jail for 3 days charged with disturbing the peace. Powell said, "Quite a few of us jail inmates saw two men in the 6th floor window of the Book Depository. Everybody was trying to watch the parade and all that. We were looking across the street at the Book Depository because it was directly straight across. The first thing I thought is, it was security guards .... I remember the guys."

NOTE: Attorney Stanley M Kaufman, who represented one of the inmates, Willie Mitchell, told WC attorney Leon D. Hubert that numerous inmates witnessed the assas­sination from the 5th and 6th floors of the county jail. Kaufman said, "I remember that did occur and it sort of concerned me at the time as to why--if they were trying to find out all these facts--why they, the Warren Commission, didn't go up there and talk to these prisoners."

Four eyewitnesses saw a man wearing dark clothing or a brown coat. Seven eyewitnesses saw a 2nd man wearing a white or light-colored shirt. Five witnesses and perhaps as many as 40 inmates saw two men on the six floor of the Book Depository moments before the shooting.

Harvey Oswald, the man charged with assassinating President Kennedy, was impersonated on many occasions in the months preceding the assassination. I believe this impersonation continued on the 6th floor of the Book Depository. A photographic image of this man was captured by Dallas Morning News photographer Tom Dillard only seconds after the shooting (photo below, on left). This image, from Dillards film, shows the man is wearing a light-colored shirt as described by witnesses. I believe this man was LEE Oswald, who's hairline is very similar to a photo taken of LEE by his brother Robert Oswald (photo below, on right). LEE Oswald is the man who left Dealey Plaza in a Nash Rambler station wagon seen by Roger Craig. LEE is the man who shot and killed police officer JD Tippit. LEE is the man who was arrested in the balcony of the Texas Theater. LEE is the man who was taken out the back of the Texas Theater. LEE the man seen an hour later driving a 1957 Plymouth that belonged to Carl Mather, the best friend of police officer JD Tippit. An hour later LEE Oswald boarded an unmarked military transport plane near downtown Dallas and rode with fellow passenger Robert Vinson to an air force base at Roswell, New Mexico. LEE Oswald, the brother of Robert Oswald, was the man who impersonated the Russian speaking Harvey Oswald during the months leading up to the assassination, and this impersonation continued on November 22, 1963.

For many years I wondered how LEE Oswald and a husky, dark skinned man wearing a brown jacket managed to get to the 6th floor and later out of the 6th floor without being noticed, seen, or heard by anyone. Not one person who worked in the Book Depository reported seeing a stranger or strangers in the building before 12:30 PM on November 22. How did two or more "unidentified strangers" manage to enter the building, get to and from the 6th floor without being seen, recognized, or reported by anyone?

3 men on the 5th floor

At 12:30 PM there were 2 unidentified men on the 6th floor, and 3 employees of the Book Depository directly below on the 5th floor--Harold Norman, Bonnie Rae Williams, and James Jarman. As the men on the 6th floor moved around, dust fell between the gaps in the floor boards and onto the heads of the 3 men on the 5th floor.

Geneva Hine, "The lights all went out"

As the Presidential limousine turned onto Houston Street Geneva Hines was sitting alone at her desk in her office at the Book Depository. This office, as can be seen in the 2nd floor diagram below, was in the middle of the building with only one exterior window, which was blocked in part by a counter (see photo below on left). The light source for office workers was provided by a dozen overhead ceiling lights, as can be seen in the photos below.

WC attorney Joseph Ball asked Hines, "Were you alone then at this time?"
Mrs. Hines. Yes.
Mr. Ball. Did you stay at your desk?
Mrs. Hines. Yes, sir. I was alone until the lights all went out and the phones became dead because the motorcade was coming near us and no one was calling so I got up and thought I could see it from the east window in our office (see 2nd floor diagram below).

"All the lights went out and the phones became dead." The telephone on Mrs. Hines desk had 3 incoming lines and 3 very small lucite buttons which illuminated when a particular line was in use. In 1963 Western Electric was the major supplier of multi line telephones to AT&T, like the phone pictured below. Electricity required for the illumination of the lucite buttons was provided by the local electric company, and not by telephone lines. Lighting in Mrs. Hines office came from a dozen overhead ceiling lights. When Mrs. Hines said "all the lights went out," she was referring to the overhead lights in her office and the small button lights on her telephone. Someone shut off the electricity in the Book Depository only moments before President Kennedy was assassinated. BUT WHY AND FOR WHAT REASON?

Mr. Ball. Did you go to the window?
Mrs. Hines. Yes.
Mr. Ball. Did you look out?
Mrs. Hines. Yes.
Mr. Ball. What did you see?
Mrs. Hines. I saw the escort car come first up the middle of Houston Street.
Mr. Ball. Going north on Houston Street?
Mrs. Hines. Yes, sir. going north on Houston Street. I saw it turn left and I saw the President's car coming and I saw the President and saw him waving his hand in greeting up in the air and I saw his wife and I saw him turn the corner and after he turned the corner I looked and I saw the next car coming just at the instant I saw the next car coming up was when I heard the shots.

Mrs. Hines wanted to see what had happened so she hurried down the hall to the office of Lyons and Carnahan (see #2-photo below), a publishing company with an office facing Elm Street (follow the green line On 2nd floor diagram below). She knocked on the door but nobody answered. She then hurried to the office of Southwest Publishing, another office that faced Elm Street (see #3-photo below). A young lady was in the office talking on the telephone, but would not answer the door.

As the 3 men on the 5th floor were watching the motorcade, shots were fired. These men heard shell casings as they dropped onto the 6th floor, directly overhead, but they heard no footsteps. For many years I wondered about this. How could these men hear shell casings drop onto the floor, but not hear the footsteps of one or two adult men running across the 6th floor. Nor did the 3 men see anyone hurrying down the old wooden stairs or riding a freight elevator in the NW corner of the building.

One floor below, on the 4th floor, was the office of the Scott Forseman Company. Office workers Sandra Styles, Victoria Adams, Elsie Dorman, and supervisor Dorothy Garner were watching the parade thru an office window. After hearing gun shots Victoria Adams hurried to the stairway (see diagram below). WC attorney Belin asked Adams how long it took her to get from the office window to the bottom of the stairs on the 1st floor. Adams replied, "I would say no longer than a minute at the most." Office supervisor Dorothy Garner followed Styles and Adams out of the office and watched as the two women hurried to the NW stairway and began walking down the stairs (see diagram below). Neither woman saw nor heard anyone on the stairway.

Officer Marion Baker and Roy Truly

Dallas Police officer Marion Baker was riding his motorcycle in the parade when he heard what he thought were gun shots. Baker parked his motorcycle and ran toward the Book Depository. Roy Truly saw the officer and introduced himself as the building manager. Baker and Truly hurried into the building and ran to the NW corner where the 2 freight elevators and stairway are located. They arrived at the elevators a little more than a minute after the last shot and pushed the call button. But the elevators were not working, most likely because the electricity was shut off, as noticed by office worker Geneva Hine. Warren Commission member Senator Cooper asked Officer Baker, "Did you see anyone else while you were in the building, other than this man you have identified later as Oswald, and Mr. Truly? Baker replied, "On the first floor there were two men. As we came through the main doorway to the elevators, I remember as we tried to get on the elevators I remember two men, one was sitting on this side and another one between 20 or 30 feet away from us looking at us." WHO WERE THESE MEN? THEY HAVE NEVER BEEN IDENTIFIED. AND WHY WERE THEY AT THE BACK OF THE BOOK DEPOSITORY INSTEAD OF WATCHING THE PRESIDENTIAL PARADE?

Below is a diagram of the 1st floor of the Book Depository showing the position of Baker and Truly. One of the unknown men may have been standing near the west freight elevator. The other unknown man, "20 or 30 feet away," could have been standing near the buildings electrical panels. Could one or both of these men have been responsible for turning off the electricity only moments before the shooting?

Officer Baker and Truly began running up the old wooden stairs. When they reached the 5th floor they saw no one, but the 3 workers on the 5th floor-Jarman, Norman, and Williams-saw the policeman when he and Truly arrived on the 5th floor. While Baker and Truly were running up the stairway to the 5th floor, somebody turned the electricity back on. After briefly looking around the 5th floor the two men got onto a freight elevator and rode up to the 7th floor. The elevators were now working because the electricity had been turned back on--only minutes after the shooting. Was this "someone" the man seen by Officer Baker only a few minutes earlier sanding near the electrical panels on the 1st floor? Was this the man seen by James Richard Worrell, a few minutes after the shooting, hurrying out the back of the Book Depository, onto the loading dock, and then running south on Houston St?

As Baker and Truly were running up the stairway, Geneva Hines returned to her office and saw the lights in her office were now working and the lights on her 3-line telephone were blinking. "Someone" had turned the electricity back on.

What happened to the two men on the 6th floor?

In 1963 there were only three ways for people to get from the 1st floor to the 5th, 6th, and 7th floor warehouse areas. #1--There were two freight elevators. #2--There was an old wooden enclosed stairway. #3--There was a fire escape on the outside of the building. The new passenger elevator, located near the front entrance to the building on Elm and Houston Streets, serviced only the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th floors.

#1--the freight elevators. A minute after the shooting Officer Baker and Roy Truly were on the first floor, standing by the two freight elevators. Both elevators appeared to be stopped in place on the 5th floor, and did not respond when Truly pushed the call button for an elevator. The elevators were not working because the electricity was shut off. If the electricity were on, and anyone were to ride one of these slow moving freight elevators from the 6th to the 1st floor, they could not have done so before Baker and Truly arrived at the elevators within a minute after the shooting. If someone had ridden one of the elevators from the 6th floor down to the 1st floor, then that same elevator would have to travel back to the 5th floor by the time Truly and Baker arrived. In other words, one of these slow moving, noisy, freight elevators would have to travel from the 6th floor to the 1st floor, and then return to the 5th floor within one minute, which was impossible. Therefore, the two men on the 6th floor could not possibly have ridden either of the slow moving freight elevators to the 1st floor (escape route #1).

East freight elevator
Photo taken while standing inside of the west freight elevator

#2--the old wooden stairway. Baker and Truly hurried up the stairs, stopped on the 2nd floor where they spoke briefly with Harvey Oswald, and then continued up the stairs. Office supervisor Dorothy Garner, who was still on the 4th floor near her office, said that after Vickie Adams and Sandra Styles went downstairs she (Miss Garner) saw Mr. Truly and the policeman (Marion Baker) come up the stairs. It is likely that while Truly and Baker briefly confronted Oswald in the lunchroom, Adams and Styles arrived on the 2nd floor and then walked past the lunchroom to the enclosed stairway that lead to the 1st floor.

After Truly told Baker that Oswald was an employee, the two men returned to the stairway. While Baker and Truly were climbing the stairs to the 5th floor someone turned the electricity back on, perhaps one of the unknown men seen by Officer Baker standing near the electrical panels. After arriving on the 5th floor, Baker and Truly were able to ride the east freight elevator up to the 7th floor. Not one person saw or heard anyone hurrying down the NW stairway following the shooting (escape route #2).

#3--the fire escape. The only other way of getting from the 6th to the 1st floor was the fire escape on the outside of the building on Houston St. But if anyone had been on this fire escape following the shooting, many people would have seen them and they likely would have been photographed. The two men on the 6th floor did not use the fire escape (escape route #3).

For years I wondered why so many people never heard nor saw anyone running across the 6th floor, hurrying down the old wooden stairway, or riding down on one of the freight elevators. Not one of these people saw or heard anyone on the stairs or elevators. How was this possible? How did 2 adult men vanish from the 6th floor? Nobody knows for certain. But what is certain is that they did not use the freight elevators, the old wooden stairway, or the fire escape.

Passenger elevator

The purpose of this essay is not to "prove" how two men vanished from the 6th floor. My purpose is to show researchers that there is at least one alternative "escape route." By using one plausible "escape route," which I will explain, we may be able to understand the reason why the electricity was briefly turned off, why the 3 men on the 5th floor heard nobody run across the 6th floor to the stairway, why neither the 3 men on the 5th floor or the lady office workers on the 4th floor saw anybody running down the stairway or riding the freight elevators, and why Officer Baker and Roy Truly saw nobody on the freight elevators or stairway. What follows is an alternate, and very discreet and secret way by which to go from the 6th floor to the 1st floor. I BELIEVE THE 2 MEN ON THE 6TH FLOOR USED THE PASSENGER ELEVATOR.

The passenger elevator is close to the main entrance of the building, and carried people from the 1st to the 4th floors. The elevator shaft, in which the elevator cabin moved from floor to floor, extended from the basement thru the 5th floor. The mechanical equipment, including cables, pulley's, gears, etc. was housed on the 5th floor (see diagram below). The Warren Commission published diagrams of all floors of the Book Depository. Access to the passenger elevator is shown on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th floor diagrams. But diagrams for the basement and 5th floors show only the elevator shaft, with no public access at these levels.

Below is a diagram that shows the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th floors of a typical cable operated elevator. In this diagram the elevator is stopped on the 4th floor, with the mechanical equipment directly overhead on the 5th floor. It is very important for researchers to understand, and remember, that the ceiling boards on the 5th floor elevator shaft are the floor boards for the 6th floor. I'll say it again, "the ceiling boards in the 5th floor elevator shaft are the floor boards for the 6th floor." And these ceiling boards are only about 15 feet from the snipers nest on the 6th floor.

Building codes in the 1970s (found on-line) required elevators that serviced 4 or more floors to be vented (see #22 below), due to the large volume of air displaced as the elevator moved between floors. Vents were typically placed at the top and bottom of the elevator shaft (see diagram below). Building codes in many localities also required that elevator shafts have wall mounted ladders, which were routinely used by workers for maintenance.

All floors in the Book Depository were constructed with solid, thick, wooden floor boards (single floor construction). The photo on the right, of the stairway, shows the size and shape of the floor boards which were laid side by side. They appear to be 2" by 6" solid boards. The photo below on the left shows the wooden floor boards and ceiling boards extending from girder to girder. It is important to understand and remember that in the Book Depository the ceiling boards on one floor are the floor boards for the next level. We are focused on the area directly above the elevator shaft, which is only about 15 feet from the snipers nest. If an air vent were installed in the ceiling of the 5th floor elevator shaft, it would allow air to flow from the open elevator shaft directly into the 6th floor (see diagram below). An air vent would also provide direct access to the 5th floor and to the top of the elevator cabin. If an air vent were not installed in this area, then lifting a few floor boards would also provide direct access to the 5th floor.

Now let's look at photos of the 6th floor, and the snipers nest, taken shortly after shots were fired. The passenger elevator is located on the Houston Street side of the Book Depository, in front of the 2nd set of windows on the upper left side of the photo above. Looking at the floor it appears there are no boxes on the floor in front of the 2nd set of windows (see green lines), which is directly over the elevator shaft. An air vent in this area would provide direct access from the 6th floor to the 5th floor. If the elevator cabin were stopped on the 4th floor, the cabin could be entered thru the emergency access panel on top of the cabin. If there was no elevator vent shaft, then lifting 3 or 4 floor boards would provide the same direct access to the 5th floor and to the elevator cabin. By simply lifting the elevator vent, or lifting a few boards, a person could then climb down the wall mounted ladder to the 5th floor If the elevator cabin was stopped temporarily on the 4th floor, then the cabin could be entered thru the access panel. How to temporarily stop the elevator cabin on the 4th floor? Turn off the electricity.

6th floor ingress

If one or more people ("shooters") wanted to get onto the 6th floor, quietly and without being seen, access (ingress) could be accomplished by riding in the passenger elevator, with an accomplice, to the 4th floor. By alerting another accomplice on the 1st floor, the electricity could be momentarily shut off and the elevator cabin would remain on the 4th floor. By lifting the emergency trap door (see below) one or more people could climb onto the top of the elevator cabin, and step onto the 5th floor level of the elevator shaft. Directly overhead is either the air vent or floor boards which provide direct access to the 6th floor. Use the wall mounted ladder in the elevator shaft, climb a few feet to the ceiling, and either lift the vent panel or a few loose floor boards and climb onto the 6th floor. Exiting the elevator cabin thru the access panel in the ceiling would take only 1-2 minutes. Then an accomplice on the 1st floor would be notified and would turn the electricity back on. The passenger elevator would then operate as normal.

6th floor egress

Leaving the 6th floor (egress) is similar. As the Presidential motorcade was approaching Dealey Plaza an accomplice would ride the passenger elevator to the 4th floor, and immediately alert accomplices on the first floor to turn off the electricity. The elevator would then remain in place on the 4th floor. After shots were fired the two men in "snipers nest" (6th floor) would walk about 15 feet to the top of the elevator shaft (see diagram on left). They would either lift the elevator ventilation panel or lift a few loose floor boards (if no vent panel), and enter the elevator shaft. They would climb 8 ft down a wall mounted maintenance ladder, lift the access door on top of the elevator cabin, drop into the elevator, and then alert an accomplice on the 1st floor to turn on the electricity. Moving from the "snipers nest" into the elevator cabin could be done in less than 2 minutes. The alerting of an accomplice on the 1st floor, standing by the electrical panels, could be accomplished by simply pushing the "emergency" button inside the elevator cabin, which would be powered by battery backup in case of a power failure.

The two men from the 6th floor, along with an accomplice, rode the elevator down to the 2nd floor. The two men got off the elevator while the accomplice stayed on the elevator. When the elevator arrived on the 1st floor the accomplice may have walked past Dallas Police Inspector Herbert Sawyer, who was getting onto the elevator.

Mr. BELIN. Now you took an elevator up, is that correct?
Mr. SAWYER. That's right.
Mr. BELIN. The route that you took to the elevator, you went to the front door?
Mr. SAWYER. Right.
Mr. BELIN. Then what did you do?
Mr. SAWYER. We got into the elevator. We run into this man.
Mr. BELIN. Well, when you say you got into the elevator, where was the elevator as you walked in the front door?
Mr. SAWYER. It was to the right.
Mr. BELIN. To the right?
Mr. SAWYER. Yes, sir.
Mr. BELIN. Was it a freight elevator or a passenger elevator?
Mr. SAWYER. The best of my recollection, it was a passenger elevator.

When the two men got off the elevator on 2nd floor, they separated. The man wearing the brown coat probably walked down the front stairs, exited the building, and walked south on Houston St. This man walked past Richard Carr, who had seen this man a few minutes earlier on the 6th floor. Carr watched this man, and he soon got into a Nash Rambler station wagon on Record Street.

It appears as though the 2nd man from the 6th floor, wearing the white shirt, walked thru the hallway on the 2nd floor and entered the Book Depository office. An employee of the Book Depository, Mrs. Reid, had just returned to her office when the man walked into the office. As he walked thru the office Mrs. Reid said he was wearing a white t-shirt and carrying a bottle of Coke. Mrs. Reid's testimony before the Warren Commission caused a great deal of concern. The Commission knew that Oswald was wearing a long-sleeve brown shirt when confronted in the lunchroom by Officer Baker and Roy Truly. The Commission said that a minute or two later Oswald walked thru Mrs. Reid's office, but they could not explain why he was wearing a white t-shirt and carrying a bottle of coke. The Commission said Oswald then left the building and was next seen on Cecil McWatter's bus wearing a long-sleeve brown shirt.

The Commission never understood, and never explained, how Oswald was able to wear a long sleeve brown shirt, and a minute or two later wear a white t-shirt, and then leave the building wearing a long sleeve brown shirt. The answer, of course, is that LEE Oswald was wearing the white t-shirt, and HARVEY Oswald was wearing the long-sleeve brown shirt. LEE Oswald was wearing the white t-shirt on the 6th floor, wearing the white t-shirt when he got into the Nash Rambler, wearing the white t-shirt when he shot Officer Tippit, wearing the white t-shirt when he was in the Texas Theater, and wearing the white t-shirt when he was seen driving the 1957 blue Plymouth. HARVEY Oswald was wearing the long-sleeve brown shirt when confronted by Baker and Truly, wearing the long-sleeve brown shirt on Cecil McWatters bus, wearing the long-sleeve brown shirt in William Whaley's taxi, wearing the long-sleeve brown shirt when arrested in the Texas Theater, and wearing the long-sleeve brown shirt when taken to police headquarters. It may be very difficult for some people to follow the activities of Harvey and Lee on November 22. But if you just remember "White shirt--brown shirt" it is much easier.

Using the passenger elevator to access the 6th floor would require at least two accomplices. One accomplice on the 1st floor, to turn the electricity on and off, and a second accomplice in the passenger elevator to stop the elevator for a few minutes on the 4th floor. One of the accomplices may have been the unidentified men seen by Officer Baker on the first floor near the old wodden stairway and the electrical panels. Another accomplice may have been the man Inspector Sawyer ran into when he accessed the passenger elevator minutes after the shooting. Who were these men...businessmen? Book Depository employees...? office workers...? tramps?

It is, and probably always will be, impossible to prove how two men managed to enter and then leave the 6th floor without being seen or heard by anyone. But escaping from the 6th floor thru the passenger elevator shaft, with the help of accomplices, is quite easy and could explain why the electricity was briefly turned off minutes before the assassination and turned back on minutes after the assassination. Escaping thru the elevator shaft could explain why Jarman, Norman, Williams, Styles, Adams, Garner, Dougherty, Baker, and Truly neither saw nor heard anyone on the 6th floor leaving via the stairway or freight elevators. Escaping thru the elevator shaft could also explain the activities of the unidentified men seen on the first floor at the back of the building about one minute after the shooting, who were standing next to the old wooden stairway and near the electrical panels.