Marine Corps and the

Soviet Union

by John Armstrong

On October 15, 1956 HARVEY Oswald was interviewed in preparation for his enlistment in the Marine Corps. His physical appearance was listed as hazel eye color, brown hair, 5 ft 8, and 135 pounds. He gave his home address as 4936 Collinwood, Ft. Worth, where he lived with Robert Oswald and the short, heavy-set Marguerite Oswald impostor. On October 24, HARVEY and three other Marine recruits boarded an American Airlines flight to San Diego. Oswald and the 3 men from Dallas were assigned to Platoon 2060, along with a young man from Wisconsin named Allen R. Felde. Following boot camp these 8 marines from Platoon 2060 were transferred to Camp Pendleton for infantry training. They shared the same tent and Allen Felde and HARVEY Oswald spent a lot of time together. Felde told the FBI that Oswald continually discussed politics, championed the cause of the working man, and was "left-winged."

In the fall of 1956, while HARVEY Oswald and Allen Felde were stationed at San Diego, LEE Oswald was at the Marine Corps Air Facility at El Toro, CA, 10 miles south of Camp Pendleton. It was in El Toro that Sergeant Wallace Ransberger first met Private First Class LEE Oswald, and a year later associated with him at Atsugi, Japan. Ransberger and LEE Oswald were assigned to the same unit and their duties were to furnish repair parts for vehicles and generators. In early 1957 Sergeant Donald Goodwin was assigned to Camp Pendleton and supervised a group of 20 men in the 5th Marine division, one of whom was radio communicator LEE Oswald, Private 1st class. As we shall see, it was LEE Oswald who was assigned to the jet base at El Toro, CA (HARVEY was assigned to Santa Ana, CA).

HARVEY Oswald in 1957

HARVEY Oswald 1957: Platoon 2060
LEE Oswald 1957

LEE OSWALD. In February, 1957 LEE Oswald took leave and resided with his tall, nice-looking mother in her apartment at 3830 W. 6th in Ft. Worth. Mrs. Oswald was working at Clyde Campbell's Men's Store in Ft. Worth. It was during this trip that LEE's brother, Robert Oswald, introduced him to his new wife (Vada) for the first time. Following his leave, LEE Oswald was assigned to the Naval Air Station (Aviation Fundamentals School) in Jacksonville, FL from March 18 through May 2. After graduating LEE Oswald and 5 other marines were ordered to report to Keesler Air Force Base in Biloxi, MS (radar school). They departed Jacksonville, FL by train on May 2 and arrived in Biloxi, MS on May 4. Marine Corps Unit Diary 105-57 (p 722) confirms that LEE Oswald departed Jacksonville for Biloxi, Mississippi on May 2. Daniel Patrick Powers was in charge of the 6-member group and, reading from his orders, told the Warren Commission that his group reported to the 3383rd student squadron, attended class # 08057 and received instruction in course # AB27037. After graduating on June 17 they were assigned military occupation specialty 6467--early warning system for radar. Curiously, and without explanation, the Course Curriculum, as published by the WC (Folsom Ex 1, p 117), shows that Powers' group received instruction in course # AB27730 and their class convened on April 24, 1957, eleven days before Powers and his group arrived in Biloxi.

HARVEY OSWALD. Allen Felde told the FBI that he and HARVEY Oswald remained in California (San Diego & Camp Pendleton) until May, 1957, and were then transferred to the A&P school in Jacksonville, FL. Marine Corps Unit Diary #104-57 (pp 719, 724) confirms that Felde arrived in Jacksonville, FL on May 2, 1957. These Marine Corps records show that Felde, and possibly HARVEY Oswald, arrived in Jacksonville, FL the same day that Powers, LEE Oswald, and their group departed Jacksonville for Keesler AFB in Biloxi, MS. Following the assassination of President Kennedy the Dallas Police found a 7-page handwritten account of Oswald's background. HARVEY wrote that he had served in San Diego, CA from October 1956, to April, 1957 and at Camp Pendleton in April and May, 1957. Felde's statement to the FBI, HARVEY Oswald's handwritten chronology, and the Marine Corps Unit diary confirm that Oswald (HARVEY) and Felde were in California and did not arrive in Jacksonville, FL until May 2, 1957. Their assignments at Camp Pendleton, California through May 2 contradict both Marine Corp records and the WC who said that Oswald was in Jacksonville, FL from March 18 through May 2. In other words, HARVEY Oswald and Felde were in ITR training in California while LEE Oswald, Powers, and members of their group were at Aviation Fundamentals School in Jacksonville, FL.

We know that HARVEY Oswald worked in a radar bubble for 10 months with Nelson Delgado at MACS 9 at Santa Ana, CA. from October, 1958 through August, 1959. Therefore, HARVEY Oswald attended radar school, but when? In 1998 researcher William Weston interviewed former Marine Sherman Cooley who said that he, Daniel Powers, and Nelson Delgado were in platoon 1068, and that LEE Oswald was either in platoon 1069 or 1070. This is very, very significant, because HARVEY Oswald was in platoon 2060 and his photo appeared in the Platoon 2060 book along with Allen Felde and Marine recruits who accompanied HARVEY from Dallas to San Diego. Cooley explained that Marines from platoons in the "1000" series (1001 to 1999) attended radar school a week or two before or after Marines from platoons in the "2000" series (2001 to 2999). Therefore Powers & Delgado (1068), LEE Oswald (1069 or 1070), and their group attended radar school in Biloxi (May 4-June 18) a week, or perhaps two weeks, before or after HARVEY Oswald (2060) attended the same radar school. This could explain why there are so many conflicting entries in records related to radar school at Keesler. Below, on the left, is information provided to the WC by Daniel Powers who read from his Marine Corps orders. On the right are contradictions to the official WC record, yet nearly all of these contradictions are found in the WC volumes. And nearly all of these contradictions can be explained if HARVEY Oswald attended radar school from April 24 to May 27 (30 academic days).

LEE Oswald (per Daniel Powers MC Orders)
Previous Location
NAS-Jacksonville, FL  Mar 18 - May 2
Camp Pendleton, CA April, 1957
Jacksonville, May 2, 1957 ^ *
Arrive Keesler AFB
May 4, 1957

Class Date (30 academic days)
May 6 - June 17, 1957 *
April 24-May 27, 1957 #
Tech Training Group
1069 or 1070 +
3383 *
3381 or 3386
Assigned to
Shipping & Receiving Sect., Keesler AFB
Inspector & Instructor Staff; 1st Armor Amphibian Co., USMCR, Gulfport, MS
08057 *
24047 ~
AB27037 *
AB27330 ~
6467 (Early Warning System--Radar)
6741 (Aviation Electronics Operator) ~
 * Daniel Patrick Powers WC testimony
+ Sherman Cooley
^ Marine Corps Unit Diary #105-57 (p 722)
> Marine Corps Unit Diary #104-57 (pp 719, 724)
= FBI interview of Allen Felde
~ AF School record from Keesler
< HARVEY Oswald photo in platoon 2060 yearbook; platoon 2060 reported by WC
# FBI teletype states LHO graduated May 27, 1957 w/4 other Marines

A close look at WC records relating to radar school will show that some of the class, course, squadron, and MOS numbers shown above have been used and/or combined to produce a single radar school record from Keesler. If HARVEY and LEE both attended radar school at Keesler, then there should be another school record…….but where is it? Oswald was assigned to the Shipping & Receiving Section, Keesler AFB. But the school record published by the WC shows that Oswald was assigned to the 1st Armor Amphibian Company, USMCR, Gulfport, MS. In response to a 1987 FOIA request filed by Emory Brown, Jr. the Marine Corps advised that Oswald's attachment to the Armor Company was "administrative in nature" and only for record purposes. They further advised that Armor Company only maintained records for their own personnel. In other words, a Marine or Marines (HARVEY Oswald) attached to Armor Company could attend radar school at Keesler AFB in Biloxi, MS, but their school records (HARVEY Oswald) would be held and maintained only by the USMCR in Gulfport, MS.

NOTE: Information contained in Marine Corps Unit Diaries are the names of marines, their rank and serial numbers at a particular location on a daily basis. Marine Corps Diaries that listed the name "Lee Harvey Oswald" were withheld from the public until 1997.

In July, 1957 HARVEY Oswald and Allen Felde were transferred to the Naval Air Technical Training Center in Memphis, Tennessee. They remained in Memphis until early September, 1957. (LEE Oswald boarded the USS Bexar in San Diego, CA on August 21, 1957 en route to Japan.)

In late June, 1957 LEE Oswald took his second leave and once again visited his tall, nice-looking mother at her apartment in Ft. Worth. Two weeks later, on July 9, LEE Oswald arrived at the Marine Corps Air Station in El Toro, CA. The following day he was issued an immunization certificate and listed his mother's address as 3830 W. 6th St. in Ft. Worth. A month later LEE Oswald boarded the USS Bexar for a 3-week voyage to Yokosuka, Japan. On August 31 the Marines landed in Hawaii and Oswald mailed a post card to his tall-nice-looking mother at 3830 W. 6th in Ft. Worth. At that time Marguerite Oswald was working at Leonard's Dept. Store, according to the Retail Merchants Association.

On July 1, 1957 the Marguerite Oswald impostor moved from 4936 Collinwood (Ft. Worth) to 1031 W. 5th without paying her past due utility bills. Mrs. James Taylor, her former landlady, visited her at 1031 W. 5th and presented her with the utility bills, but the short, heavy-set Marguerite Oswald impostor refused to pay the past bills--just as she had done after moving from 126 Exchange in New Orleans. There is no record of her employment in Ft. Worth (1956-57), and her last known address was 1031 W. 5th in July and August, 1957. In September, 1957, the MO impostor moved to New Orleans and would soon be joined by HARVEY.

In late August, 1957 while LEE Oswald was aboard ship en route to Japan, HARVEY Oswald and Allen Felde were receiving classroom instruction in aviation electronics in Memphis, Tennessee. They remained at the Aviation Electronics school until September, when Felde was transferred to Opa Locka, Florida. Allen Felde's 10-month association with HARVEY Oswald, and their assignments together in San Diego, Camp Pendleton, Jacksonville, and Memphis were probably the reason Felde was never questioned by the Warren Commission, HSCA, or the ARRB. The marines who attended Aviation Electronics School in Memphis, TN in July, August and September, 1957 with Oswald (HARVEY) and Felde are very important "smoking guns," especially Allen Felde, who's 10-month association with HARVEY Oswald clearly conflicts with the known whereabouts of LEE Oswald during the same time period.

LEE Oswald arrived in Atsugi, Japan aboard the USS Bexar on Sept 12, 1957. In September, HARVEY Oswald departed Memphis for New Orleans and was soon working at the Pfisterer Dental Laboratory in the French Quarter as a delivery boy. On October 4 the Russians launched an unmanned satellite into orbit. It was on this day that HARVEY Oswald and his co-worker, Palmer McBride, began discussing Sputnik and Russian space successes. McBride was an 18 year old high school student and had been working part time at the dental lab for two years as a delivery boy. He was a member of the New Orleans Amateur Astronomy Association, a group that included high school students who were interested in astronomy. The group met regularly on the 2nd and 4th Saturdays of each month at De La Salle High School.

McBride and Oswald became close friends and spent a lot of time together, both during and after work. McBride visited Oswald and his mother in their apartment at the Hotel Senator, which was directly across street and less than 30 feet from the dental laboratory. During one visit to the Oswald's 2nd floor apartment HARVEY showed McBride two books-Das Kapital (acquired by HARVEY in North Dakota) and the Communist Manifesto-books in which McBride had no interest. McBride met Oswald's mother, who he described as short, heavy-set, grey-haired, and not too friendly. I would like to point out that the FBI investigated McBride's claim that Oswald and his mother resided at the Hotel Senator. McBride said the Oswald's lived at the hotel in 1957 and 1958, but the FBI limited their investigation to the years 1955 and 1956 and, as expected, they failed to find any records of Oswald's residence in 1955 or 1956. The FBI failed to conduct a proper investigation at the Hotel Senator and their failure, along with their failure to conduct proper investigations in many other situations, is another example of how the FBI side-stepped problems and avoided the truth when necessary. We should pay close attention to improper and poorly handled investigations by the FBI, because they point to a coverup and are "smoking guns."

Hotel Sentator and Pfister Dental Lab
Boris Gudenov
Recent image of Hotel Sentator (long 3-story building on left) where HARVEY Oswald
lived when he worked at Pfisterer Dental Lab,  the 2-story yellow building
 at right,  in 1957-1958 (Google)

HARVEY Oswald and Palmer McBride
 Attended this Production

HARVEY Oswald visited McBrides house on several occasions, where they often listened to classical music. McBride and Oswald went to the movies together and attended the Boris Gudenov opera at the local Opera House. This opera played only twice in New Orleans-on October 10th and October 12th, 1957-and both McBride and HARVEY Oswald were there.  During the next 8 months Oswald got to know employees of the dental lab, and also became friendly with members of the astronomy association. McBride told the FBI, "In early 1958 I took Oswald with me to a meeting of the New Orleans Amateur Astronomy Association at the home of Walter Gehrke." The FBI then interviewed Gehrke, who confirmed McBride's statement when he said, "None of the meetings of the NOAAA were held at my house UNTIL 1958." The meeting in early 1958 was also remembered vividly by William Wulf, who presided over the meeting. Wulf remembered that Oswald praised communism and recent Russian space successes, much to the dismay of association members. Wulf finally told Oswald, "If you like Russia so damn much why don't you just go over there." McBride recalled that Oswald seemed interested in anything Russian. He and Oswald spent a lot of time talking about a new novel by Boris Pasternak--Dr. Zhivago, first published in the United States in 1958.

In the spring of 1958 McBride took Oswald to William Wulf's home. Wulf recalled, "I don't know how we got into it, communism, and he started bringing up his association, he believed in Marxism, Lenin, the Lenin theory... this was about 2 or 3 o-clock in the morning, and we ended up waking up my father and he came back and he heard the conversation, my father had enough.... So my father threw him out." In May, 1958 Oswald told McBride that he was moving to Ft. Worth with his mother, where he had a job selling shoes. When I asked McBride to pinpoint the date of Oswald's departure he said, "I joined the Air Force reserves on August 15, 1958 and Oswald quit approximately two months earlier." It appears that HARVEY Oswald and his caretaker/mother left New Orleans sometime in June, 1958.

On July 29, 1958 the short, heavy-set Marguerite Oswald impostor opened a bank account at the First National Bank of Ft. Worth, and gave her address as 3006 Bristol Road. HARVEY Oswald, who was living with his caretaker/mother, wrote a letter to the dental lab and said that he had a job in Ft. Worth selling shoes. The letter was read aloud to McBride and to the delivery boys by office manager Earl Williamson.

On November 23, 1963, only 20 hours after President Kennedy was assassinated, FBI agents arrived at the Pfisterer Dental Lab. They confiscated employment records, which disappeared, interviewed 10 employees and instructed each of them not to discuss the case among themselves or with anyone. James Harrison Vance, who knew HARVEY Oswald from both the dental lab and the astronomy association, was interviewed at length by the FBI. Vance said, "they really shook me up." Employees of the dental lab, and members of the New Orleans Amateur Astronomy Association who knew HARVEY Oswald in the fall of 1957 and the winter/spring of 1958 are very significant "smoking guns." (click for interview of Linda Faircloth)

In October, 1957 LEE Oswald was in the Marines and stationed at Atsugi, Japan, while HARVEY Oswald was working at the Pfisterer Dental Lab in New Orleans. LEE was assigned a bunk on the first level of barracks #5, a large two-story wood frame building that housed 72 men. Zack Stout remembered the day that LEE Oswald arrived. He and Oswald became close friends and worked together on a daily basis for the next 10 months either in the radar bubble in Atsugi, the Philippines, Subic Bay, aboard ship, or while on liberty. Oswald slept on the upper bunk that he shared with Robert Augg, who slept on the lower bunk. A photo was taken of the tall, husky, well-built LEE Oswald by his friend George Wilkins shortly after he arrived in Japan.  One of the marines who knew LEE Oswald during this time was Richard Bullock. Bullock remembered that "Ozzie" was not in the radar section, but was a radio communicator. Some of you may recall that Sergeant Donald Goodwyn, who knew LEE Oswald at Camp Pendleton, also remembered that the Oswald he knew was a radio communicator. Bullock knew LEE Oswald as "Ozzie" and said, "He was NOT the guy I saw in the picture on TV shot by Jack Ruby." Bullock looked at a color mug shot of Lee Harvey Oswald taken shortly after he was taken into custody by the police and said, "It looks nothing like him. That's not the man I knew. The man I knew was 30-40 pounds heavier and 3-4 inches taller than the man accused of killing President Kennedy."

LEE Oswald 1957

Sept. 1956--HARVEY Oswald at Arlington Heights High School in Ft. Worth
1957--LEE Oswald in the USMC
1958--LEE Oswald on USMC leave photographed by Robert Oswald
Nov. 1963--HARVEY Oswald in police custody

The Marines who knew the tall, husky LEE Oswald said that he never spoke about communism, was not interested in politics, never studied or spoke a foreign language, occasionally got into fights, and was always drinking. Peter Cassisi said that Oswald came back from leave several times completely drunk, and Jerry Pitts recalled one night when Oswald was passed out drunk in the parking lot next to the barracks. Pitts, along with Pete Connor, said that LEE Oswald hated the name "Harv" or "Harvey" and would fight anyone who persisted in calling him by either of these names.

On October 27, Richard Cyr was standing about 15 yards from the barracks and heard what sounded like a gunshot inside the building. Cyr and other marines ran into the barracks and found LEE Oswald sitting on his locker with a nickle-plated derringer laying nearby on the floor. Oswald, with little emotion, said "It seems as though I've shot myself." LEE Oswald was taken to the US Navy Hospital in nearby Yososuku where a navy surgeon closed his wound and allowed the slug, which lay just below he surface on the back side of Oswald's upper left arm, to remain in his arm. A week later the doctor made an incision on the back side of Oswald's arm, removed the slug, and closed the wound with stitches. The shooting resulted in 2 scars in LEE Oswald's left arm above his elbow. Neither of these scars were noted by Dr. Earl Rose, who performed the autopsy on HARVEY Oswald after he was killed by Jack Ruby in 1963. HARVEY did not have a mastoid scar or scars on his upper left arm from a gunshot wound. LEE Oswald had these scars. The absence of numerous scars on the body of HARVEY Oswald are more "smoking guns."

In November, LEE Oswald was on maneuvers in the Philippines and later aboard the USS Cayuga County en route to the island of Ishima. During the Christmas holidays of 1957 LEE Oswald was aboard the USS Terrell County in the south China Sea, while his tall, nice-looking mother was still living in her apartment at 3830 W. 6th in Ft. Worth, and still working at Paul's Shoe Store. During the Christmas holidays a group photo was taken of store employees, and in the middle of this group is LEE Oswald's mother--the tall, nice-looking Marguerite Oswald. When this photo is compared with a photo of the short, heavy-set Marguerite Oswald impostor, anyone can see that their appearance, height, and weight are very different. These photos of two different women, both using the name Marguerite Oswald, are a very important "smoking gun."

Pauls Shoe Group Pauls Shoe Close-up
Impostor Marguerite Circa 1959
Marguerite Oswald (4th from left)
 at Pauls Shoe Store in 1958

CU of Marguerite from
1958 Photo at Left

Marguerite Oswald Imposter
Circa 1960

At Christmas, 1957, and early 1958, HARVEY Oswald was working at the Pfisterer Dental Lab in New Orleans and attending NOAAA meetings with McBride. In early 1958 LEE Oswald was in the Philippines, later in Corregidor, and returned to Japan on March 18. On April 11, LEE Oswald was court-martialed and found guilty of possessing an unauthorized weapon. On June 20 he visited the Blue Bird Cafe in Yamato and, after a couple of drinks, spilled a drink on Technical Sergeant Miguel Rodriguez. A week later LEE Oswald was again court-martialed and charged with using provoking words to a Staff-Non-Commissioned Officer, for which he was convicted and confined to the brig for 28 days. LEE Oswald was released from the brig on August 13, 1958. A month later, beginning on September 16, he made many visits to the Atsugi Station Hospital where he was diagnosed with "urethrittis, acute." LEE Oswald visited the hospital on September 20th, 22nd, and 29th, and on October 4th and 6th. During this 3-week period he was examined 6 times for the same condition.

I want to stress the importance of LEE Oswald's repeated visits to the Atsugi Station Hospital from September 16 through October 6. These visits are significant because during this time HARVEY Oswald was no longer selling shoes in Ft. Worth. HARVEY was beginning the process of assuming the identity of LEE Oswald, which began aboard the USS Skagit en route to Taiwan. Marine Corps Unit Diary 151-58 (744) shows that (HARVEY) Oswald departed with this unit en route to Taiwan on September 14. One member of this unit was William K. Trail, who accompanied HARVEY Oswald and later served with him at MACS 9 in Santa Ana, California. HARVEY Oswald arrived in Taiwan on September 30 and was soon observed by Lt. John Donovan taking photos of troop deployments, fighter aircraft, ammunition bunkers and F-86 aircraft. Lt. Donovan would later become HARVEY Oswald's immediate superior at MACS 9 in Santa Ana, CA. The thought occurred to me that Oswald may have been taking these photos in preparation for his upcoming "defection" to the Soviet Union. This may or may not have been the reason he took the photos, but after President Kennedy's assassination many of these photos, taken in Taiwan by HARVEY Oswald, were found among his possessions by the Dallas Police. On the evening of October 4, Lt. Charles Rhodes heard four or five rifle shots coming from the direction of the position that Oswald was guarding. Rhodes ran toward Oswald and found him slumped against a tree, shaking, and crying while holding his rifle. He kept saying that he just couldn't bear to be on guard duty. Rhodes reported the incident to his commanding officer and two days later Oswald was sent on an 800 mile trip back to Japan. Marine Corps Unit Diary 158-58 lists Oswald in Ping Tung, Taiwan on October 6.

HARVEY Oswald Departed for Taiwan Aboard the
USS Skagit
(AKA 105) on Sept. 14, 1958.
Note "AKA 105" Under "Record of Events" near top left above
Unit Diary shows HARVEY Oswald was
in Ping Tung, Taiwan, on Oct. 6, 1958

With HARVEY Oswald aboard, the USS Skagit departed
Yokosuka, Japan bound for Taiwan on Sept. 14,  1958

Following his "defection" to the Soviet Union, HARVEY Oswald discussed his assignment in Taiwan with reporter Priscilla Johnson, who wrote news articles about Oswald and his "defection." A naval message of November 4, 1959 reported that Oswald served with Marine Air Control Squadrons in Taiwan. In 1964 The Warren Commission received a memorandum from the Assistant General Counsel for the Department of Defense that stated Oswald had been stationed in Ping Tung, Taiwan.

Naval Intel Memo
A Naval Message Dated November 4, 1959, also Confirms
HARVEY Oswald was Stationed in Taiwan.

From September 14 through October 6 HARVEY Oswald was in Taiwan. At the same time, from September 16 through October 6, LEE Oswald was in Japan. Medical records for NAS Navy 3835 (Naval Hospital) show numerous medical entries for LEE Oswald recorded on Sept 16, 20, 22, 23, 29, and Oct 6.. HARVEY Oswald's assignment in Taiwan, while LEE Oswald made numerous visits to the Naval Hospital, is a very important "smoking gun."

While HARVEY Oswald was in Taiwan, LEE Oswald was being treated for a Venereal
Disease in Atsugi, Japan, more than One Thousand Four Hundred Miles Away.

A year later, when in Moscow, HARVEY Oswald was interviewed by UPI (United Press International) reporter Ailene Mosby. Oswald told Mosby that he had been in Formosa (Taiwan), and described his thoughts about American technicians instructing Chinese military on the use of large guns.

Following his return to Japan on October 6, 1958 HARVEY Oswald was temporarily assigned to a Marine Squadron at Iwakuni, a Marine air base 400 miles southwest of Tokyo. Owen Dejanovich, who first met HARVEY Oswald at radar school in Biloxi spent time with him at Iwakuni. Dejanovich thought that Oswald had grown bitter toward the Marines and recalled seeing him occasionally talking to a Eurasian girl. The following day, October 7, 1958, LEE Oswald was admitted to the Naval hospital in Atsugi and on October 10 he had a colon examination for rectal bleeding. LEE was discharged from the hospital on October 13, but returned on October 16th and 27th to have vaccinations that were required before returning to the US. In other words, while HARVEY was at Iwakuni, LEE was at the Naval hospital in Atsugi.

After HARVEY Oswald departed Iwakuni he returned to the United States and was assigned to the Marine Corps Air Facility--MACS 9--near the city of Santa Ana, California (HARVEY was always assigned to Sana Ana, CA; LEE was always assigned to El Toro, CA). HARVEY worked in a radar bubble with Sergeant Nelson Delgado, 5 enlisted men, and 3 officers. Sergeant Erwin Lewis remembered that Oswald transferred to MACS 9 in either October or November, 1958. Lewis said, "It was a matter of common knowledge that Oswald could read, write, and speak Russian. Marine Corps medical records confirm that HARVEY Oswald was at the Marine Corps Air Facility in Santa Ana, CA on October 29. But on October 29 LEE Oswald was still in Japan. Four days later, on November 2, LEE Oswald boarded the USS Barrett in Yokoska, Japan for a 13-day voyage to San Francisco. Marine corps medical records that show HARVEY Oswald was in California on October 29, 1958, while military records that show that LEE Oswald was in Japan and departed on November 2, 1958--an obvious "smoking gun."

HARVEY assumes LEE Oswald's identity

the short, heavy-set Marguerite Oswald impostor assumes the identity of the tall, nice-looking Marguerite Oswald

October and November, 1958 was the end of HARVEY Oswald and LEE Oswald's activities in the far east. But after returning to the US, HARVEY Oswald was assigned to MACS 9 at Santa Ana, CA, assumed LEE Oswald's identity, and began promoting himself as a supporter of all things Russian. LEE Oswald was briefly assigned to El Toro and was soon discharged. I would like to point out that not a single one of Zack Stout's group of 10 marines, who bunked with LEE Oswald, worked with him, travelled with him, and went on leave with him for one year--the marines who knew the tall, husky LEE Oswald better than anyone--not one of them was ever interviewed by the FBI. When I told Zack that the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald learned to speak Russian in the far east he said, "That's ridiculous. I never saw or heard him study any foreign language in Japan or anywhere else. Most of the time we were either aboard ship or on maneuvers in the Philippines. He didn't have time to study any foreign language." The FBI's clear lack of interest in marines who knew LEE Oswald in Japan, and their failure to conduct interviews, points to a coverup. They simply avoided talking to marines who knew the tall, husky LEE Oswald in Japan. They focused their attention on the shorter, thin-framed HARVEY Oswald at Santa Ana, CA. It is worth mentioning that at Georgetown University, in their "special collections," were interviews of over 100 marines who knew LEE Oswald in Japan (by author Edward Epstein). But these records were not available to the public, and have recently disappeared.

It is worth noting that the FBI failed to interview a single co-worker or employer of LEE Oswald's tall-nice-looking mother when she worked for Goldrings, Kreigers, and Holmes Dept Stores in New Orleans and for Clyde Campbell's Men's Store, the City of Ft. Worth, Paul's Shoe Store, Family Publications, and Cox's Department Store in Ft. Worth from 1956 through 1961. The FBI never obtained any employment information, w-2 forms, payroll records, employment applications or anything else from any of her employers. The FBI simply didn't want to interview anyone or gather records from any employer who knew the tall, nice-looking Marguerite Oswald. They intentionally ignored the tall, nice-looking Marguerite Oswald after 1956, and focused their attention on the short, heavy-set Marguerite Oswald impostor. It is also worth noting that from 1956 through 1959 not a single friend, neighbor, or employer of the short, dumpy Marguerite Oswald impostor recalled even a single visit by John Pic, Robert Oswald, HARVEY Oswald, or LEE Oswald. This is perfectly understandable, because the brothers did not know this woman, she was not their mother, nor was she HARVEY's mother. The FBI's failure to interview people in Ft. Worth and New Orleans who knew LEE Oswald and his tall, nice-looking mother--neighbors, friends, employers, co-workers--people who could have described their physical appearance in detail, their place of residence, their employment, etc. is another "smoking gun."

In October and November, 1958, HARVEY Oswald  was becoming very friendly with Sergeant Nelson Delgado at MACS 9 in Santa Ana, CA. Delgado told the Warren Commission that he and Oswald talked continuously about Castro, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic. Oswald showed Delgado a copy of Das Kapital, which was probably the same book that he had shown to Palmer McBride a year earlier. Delgado, Sergeant Erwin Lewis, Sergeant Camilous Brown, Buddy Simco, Mack Osborne, Neil Tessem, Henry Roussel, Robert Allen, and Paul Hickey all knew and associated with HARVEY Oswald in November and December, 1958--while LEE Oswald was either aboard ship en route to the USA (arrived 11/15/58) or on leave in Texas (returned to El Toro on 12/22/58).

HARVEY Oswald, 1958
LEE Oswald, 1958, photo by
Robert Oswald

In November, 1958, LEE Oswald opened a bank account at the West Side State Bank in Ft. Worth and listed his address as the Marine Corps Air Station in El Toro. Robert and LEE went on a short hunting trip and Robert took a photo of the husky, well-built LEE Oswald that appears in Robert's book, LEE, on pages 96-97.  LEE was briefly assigned to the Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS), El Toro, CA., a base for jet-aircraft that housed 5-7000 marines (10 miles southeast of Santa Ana, CA). I want to point out that the Marine Corps Air Station in El Toro (MCAS), and the Marine Corps Air Facility in Santa Ana (MCAF) are two very different bases and are 10 miles apart. LEE Oswald was assigned to MCAS 3 at the much larger Marine Corps Air Station in El Toro, CA, while HARVEY Oswald was assigned to MACS 9 at the much smaller Marine Corps Air Facility in Santa Ana.

In early 1959, after returning from leave, LEE Oswald was sent to the Lake Meade Marine base north of Las Vegas. One of the marines, Gerald Hansen, noticed that one of the supply clerks called out the name "HARVEY" to a marine who had the name Benjamin stencilled on his shirt. Hansen was curious and asked his sergeant why the man was using the name "Harvey" instead of Benjamin. Sergeant Ackerman replied that even though "Benjamin" was stencilled on this mans shirt he was using the name Harvey. Ackermen went on to explain that the man's real name was Oswald and he was from Texas.

On January 23, 1959 Marine Corps records show that LEE Oswald was at Vincent Air Force Base in Yuma, AZ--the same day that Nelson Delgado returned from leave and spoke with HARVEY Oswald about Castro's revolution in Cuba. Six weeks later in March, 1959, Allen Graf arrived at El Toro and soon became a close friend of LEE Oswald. Graf was Oswald's platoon sergeant and they spent a lot of time together and often went to the movies. Graf told Warren Commission attorney John Hart Ely that Oswald (LEE) never studied a foreign language and didn't speak Russian. Graf gave Ely the names of several marines who knew and associated with Oswald at El Toro--John Castle, Raymond Glidden, James King, Abraham Rubenstein, Goutier, Herd, Maulden and Sawchuk. Ely, who's job for the WC was to gather background information on Oswald, was puzzled because this was the first time that he heard the names of any of these marines, including Graf. Ely apparently did not understand that El Toro and Santa Ana were two different bases, he most certainly did not know about HARVEY and LEE, and he never realized that Graf and his fellow marines knew LEE Oswald, and did not know HARVEY. None of the marines named by Graf were ever interviewed by the FBI or the Warren Commission. The FBI avoided nearly all of the marines at El Toro, and focused their investigation exclusively on the MACS 9 facility at Santa Ana, where the short, thin, Russian-speaking HARVEY Oswald had made preparations for his "defection" to Russia.

In the spring of 1959 Major William P Gorsky was the Assistant Provost Marshall at the Marine Corps Air Station at El Toro. According to Gorsky's files LEE Oswald had been arrested for hitch hiking and was discharged from the marines in March, 1959. Once again the FBI and Warren Commission avoided this problem by simply failing to conduct a proper investigation and failing to obtain Oswald's discharge papers from Major Gorsky. Their refusal to investigate LEE Oswald in El Toro, or interview Marines who knew him, is another very important "smoking gun."

After LEE Oswald was discharged (March, 1959) he stayed away from the Dallas/Ft. Worth area, but was seen in several locations including Coral Gables, Key West, New Orleans, and Cuba. His tall, nice-looking mother terminated her employment at Cox's Dept. Store and moved away from the Dallas/Ft. Worth area. She returned to New Orleans and from 1959 through 1961 worked in the ladies department at Goldrings and Holmes Department Stores and at Kriegers. Mrs. Logan Magruder, who knew the tall, nice-looking Marguerite Oswald for over 20 years, saw and talked with her at Kreigers (circa 1959-60). Mrs. Oris Duane saw and spoke with Marguerite at Goldrings (circa 1960). Marguerite Oswald remained in New Orleans, undoubtedly changed her name, and never returned to Ft. Worth.

From the spring of 1959 onward, the only woman using the name "Marguerite Oswald" in Ft. Worth was the short, heavy-set impostor. And, beginning in the spring of 1959, the only person in the Marine Corps using the name "Lee Harvey Oswald" was the short, thin, Russian-speaking impostor--HARVEY Oswald. The multi-year preparations for Oswald's "defection" to Russia were now complete. HARVEY, who allegedly taught himself Russian by listening to Russian records and reading Russian newspapers, passed a Russian language exam in February, 1959. He made sure that everyone knew about his interest and ability in the Russian language. The Marguerite Oswald impostor was also preparing for his upcoming "defection." In January, 1959 she visited Dr. Milton Goldberg in Ft. Worth and told him that her son "wanted to defect to Russia." HARVEY Oswald's ability to speak near-perfect Russian, without any formal training, is an irrefutable "smoking gun."

Throughout the summer of 1959 HARVEY Oswald continued to promote communism and anything and everything Russian to fellow marines. On September 4, HARVEY Oswald applied for a passport in Santa Ana, California. But the passport contained a photo of LEE Oswald--not HARVEY.  If this photo is compared with a photo taken of HARVEY Oswald a week later, standing next to Robert Oswald, you can see they are two different people.

LEE Oswald's Photo (with altered hairline) Appeared on HARVEY Oswald's 1959 Passport
Grainy 1959 Photo of HARVEY standing
 next to Robert Oswald

On his passport application HARVEY listed Robert Edward Lee Oswald as his father and gave his birth date as 1908, when in fact the correct date was 1896. And he listed Marguerite Claverie Oswald as his mother and gave her birth date as 1909, when the correct date was 1907. HARVEY listed his date of departure as September 21 and his port of departure as New Orleans. HARVEY knew exactly where he was going and how he was going to get there even before he was discharged from the Marines. On September 11 HARVEY was given a Department of Defense photo ID card. But the photo on the card was a composite--the left half of the photo was of LEE Oswald, while the right half of the photo was of HARVEY Oswald. This allowed either HARVEY or LEE to use the ID card. I would like to point out that a nearly identical card was found on Richard Case Nagell in September, 1963--only 2 months before President Kennedy was assassinated.

DOD ID Card Given to HARVEY
Oswald on September 21, 1959

Richard Case Nagell's Verson of the
"Oswald" ID Card with Different Picture

Nagell, a former Army Intellience officer and CIA agent, knew about the impending assassination and wanted no part of it. He walked into a bank in El Paso, TX, fired shots into the ceiling, and then walked outside and waited for police. He was arrested, charged with attempted bank robbery, and was in jail when President Kennedy was assassinated. It remains unknown why Nagell had a copy of Oswald's Department of Defense Card. But this Department of Defense card, and Nagel's knowledge of Oswald and the impending assassination of JFK, are another "smoking gun."

On September 20, 1959 HARVEY Oswald boarded the SS Marion Lykes in New Orleans en route to Europe. But where did Oswald get the money for this trip? The Warren Commission showed that Oswald earned over $3400 while in the marines and claimed that he could have used some of this money for his trip to the Soviet Union. But the WC never told the public that all marines in Japan were paid in non-convertible military script that could only be used at the base commissary--they were never paid in cash. Where Oswald got the money to pay for his trip remains a mystery, but when he arrived in Europe he reported $700 cash in his possession.

On October 8, 1959 Oswald arrived in France. The following day he arrived in England. One day later he arrived in Helsinki, Finland and quickly obtained a 6-day visa that allowed him to enter the Soviet Union. On October 16 HARVEY Oswald arrived in Moscow by train and was met by Intourist guide Rimma Shirakova. She drove Oswald to the Hotel Berlin where he registered as a student and told Rimma that he didn't know a single word of Russian. Oswald then told Rimma that he wanted to apply for Russian citizenship, and she was shocked.

On October 21, as his VISA was about to expire, Oswald met with an official with the Passport and Visa Department who advised him to "go home." That evening, in his hotel room, he cut his left wrist in a futile attempt at suicide. The doctor who examined HARVEY at Botkinskaya Hospital wrote, "A 'show' suicide,' since he was refused political asylum, which he had been demanding." After a few days in the hospital HARVEY Oswald was taken to the passport office on October 28. Three days later he attempted to renounce his US citizenship at the US Embassy, an incident that was soon reported in various newspapers in the US. The Ft. Worth Star Telegram wrote about his "defection," but they published a photograph of LEE Oswald--not HARVEY.  This was because people who had grown up with LEE Oswald in Ft. Worth may have recognized LEE Oswald's photo, but they would not have recognized a photo of HARVEY Oswald.

The Fort Worth Star Telegram published  this washed-out
 photo of  Lee Oswald when Harvey Oswald "defected."

The photo above was purchased by the author from Wide World Photos. The typed label indicates: "This is a retransmission of FW1 of Nov. 1 to provide better copy." Associated Press/Wide World Photos

If the higher quality "retransmitted" photo had been used by the
Star-Telegram, this is how the article would have appeared.

For more about the manipulation of the 1959 "Defection" photos shown above, including their probable original source, click here.

Composite Image of HARVEY
and LEE Oswald.

Separating the Composite Images, with Lee
on the Left, Harvey on the Right.

On November 16, 1959, the Ft. Worth Press published an article about Oswald's "defection" and included a photograph--but this photograph was actually a composite of both HARVEY and LEE. Robert Oswald lived and worked in Ft. Worth, but when reporters interviewed him and asked how they could locate his mother Robert always replied, "no comment." The short, heavy-set Marguerite Oswald impostor soon left Ft. Worth in order to avoid reporters, publicity, and to avoid people who knew the tall, nice-looking Marguerite Oswald--people who would know that she was not LEE Oswald's mother. For the next couple of years the Marguerite Oswald impostor lived in small towns in Texas, was aways paid in cash, and changed residences and employment often.

On January 4, 1960 HARVEY Oswald was taken to the passport office and given a Soviet residence document for people without citizenship and told that he would be sent to the city of Minsk. His CIA-sponsored "defection" to the Soviet Union, years in the making, was now complete. The KGB could check and verify Oswald's background in the US from his birth in New Orleans through his military service in the Marines. In all likelihood they would uncover nothing. But US intelligence now had a Russian-speaking agent inside the Soviet Union.

Three days later Oswald left Moscow, arrived in Minsk, and began work at the Minsk Radio and TV factory. His boss was Alejandro Zieger, who lived with his wife and two teenage daughters--Anita and Eleanora--in an apartment near the factory. Oswald was given an apartment close to the Zigers and soon began spending 3 or 4 evenings a week with his new neighbors. For the next two years, nobody spent more time with Oswald than the Zieger family. In 1998 I met and interviewed Anita Zeiger for 3 days in Buenes Aires, Argentina. Anita recalled, "Oswald was not an affectionate person, was not open, and did not express himself often or at all." Anita said the main reason that her family was never able to learn much about Oswald was his unwillingness to learn or to speak Russian. She said, "My father always interpreted for him, because I never heard him speak Russian." I said, "Ana, you knew Oswald from the time he arrived in Minsk to the day he and Marina left for the United States. During this time he never spoke any Russian, even up to the day he left Minsk?" Ana replied, "No--not a word." These were the words of Anita Zieger.  Oswald may or may not have spoken a limited amount of Russian while in Minsk. But it is clear that he hid his fluency in the Russian language during his stay in the Soviet Union, and gave the impression that he was struggling to learn the language.

My conversation with Anita Zieger caused me to remember the constant assertions of Marina Oswald, who told the FBI, Warren Commission, researchers, and anyone who would listen to her that Oswald spoke near-perfect Russian with a Baltic accent. Marina said Oswald always spoke Russian while in Russia. But Anita Zieger, his neighbor in Minsk, said that he never spoke a word of Russian. One of these woman was lying, but why? I could not imagine the calm, sincere, and gracious Anita Zieger lying to anyone. But Marina, who repeatedly changed her story on virtually every subject relating to the Kennedy assassination, was a different matter. In California, 6 months before his "defection" HARVEY Oswald prided himself on his ability to speak Russian to his Marine buddies. Yet here he was in Russia, and apparently speaking very little Russian. But maybe he had no choice. As a spy on assignment for US intelligence, in the middle of the cold war, he had to conceal his knowledge of Russian from the Soviet authorities. It was Marina who lied when she said that Oswald spoke Russian with a Baltic accent. But why?

In July, 1959 17-year old Marina Prusakova met Robert Webster, the second "defector" from the United States in 1959, at a trade exhibition in Moscow. In the USA Webster worked for Rand Development, a notorious CIA think-tank, and shortly after arriving in Russia he met and talked with Marina for several hours, in English. But where did 17-year old Marina learn to speak English?? And how was she able to meet and talk for hours with a "defector" from the United States, who was obviously under the watchful eyes of the KGB ?? A year later, in the fall of 1960, Marina travelled to Leningrad and resided for a short time in the same apartment building as Webster. She met with Webster on several occasions and had long conversations with him--all in English. A few months later, in March, 1961 Marina was in Minsk and met the 3rd American "defector," HARVEY Oswald, at a Friday night dance. Oswald walked her home and they agreed to meet the following weekend. But the following Thursday, Oswald was admitted to the Fourth Clinical Hospital where his adenoids were removed. He remained in the hospital for 11 days during which time he and Marina agreed to marry. The very day that HARVEY was discharged from the hospital, he and Marina filed a notice of intent to marry at the registrar's office. How is it possible, at the height of the cold war between the United States and the Soviet Union, that a teenage girl can meet the 2nd and 3rd American "defectors" in different cities hundreds of miles apart and talk with both of them in English. And marry one of them within days of their first meeting. And leave the Soviet Union a year later without any difficulty. These minute details, and other aspects of her background, is what caused CIA analysts to conclude that Marina Prusakova worked for the KGB. And when Marina arrived in the United States with Oswald, she dared not speak a word of English. Otherwise, our intelligence agencies would wonder where she learned to speak English, and would suspect her of being a spy.

On June 3, 1960, J. Edgar Hoover received an AIRTEL from the FBI's New York office regarding Lee Harvey Oswald's birth certificate. Hoover then wrote a memo to the Office of Security at the State Department that read, "Since there is a possibility that an impostor is using Oswald's birth certificate, any current information the Department of State may have concerning subject will be appreciated." In the winter of 1960, while HARVEY Oswald was in Russia, LEE Oswald was at a CIA safe house in Miami, Florida and at CIA sponsored camps in the everglades. A month later, on January 20, 1961 two men visited the Bolton Ford dealership in New Orleans. They told assistant manager Oscar Deslatte they were interested in purchasing 10 Ford Econoline Trucks for the Friends of Democratic Cuba. One of the incorporators, and vice-president of Friends for Democratic Cuba, was Gerard Tujague, who employed LEE Oswald in 1955-56. When Deslatte asked for their names, one of the men replied, "LEE Oswald." Oswald also visited the Dumas Milner Chevrolet dealership and spoke with James Spencer about purchasing a 1958 Chevrolet. Spencer recalled that when the man returned a second time he talked a lot about Cuba, Castro, and the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. Spencer wrote "Oswald" on the back of one of his business cards and in 1963 told the FBI that he had no doubt the man he met in 1961 was Lee Harvey Oswald.

In the Spring of 1961 LEE Oswald fueled up his 43-foot Chris Craft diesel boat in Key West, Florida but didn't have enough money to pay for the fuel. The owner of the fuel station called Sheriff Thompson, and when Thompson arrived he began questioning Oswald about his unpaid fuel bill. Oswald then made a telephone call to Texas, and within 2 hours a man named "Ruben" arrived and paid for the fuel. The identity of "Ruben" is unknown, but he may have been Jack Ruby who was actively running guns from Florida to Cuba during this period.

On May 7, 1961 Dr. Enrique Luaces was sitting in a bar in Havana, Cuba when 2 men approached him. One of the men was Robert Tabor, who Dr. Luaces knew as a correspondent for CBS. Tabor introduced his friend as Lieutenant Harvey Oswald, who opened his briefcase and showed Dr. Luaces several brochures that contained information on military hardware. When interviewed by Army intelligence in 1963, Dr. Luaces identified the man introduced to him by Tabor as Lee Harvey Oswald, whose picture recently appeared in the local press as the accused assassin of President Kennedy. But HARVEY Oswald was in Russia in May, 1961.

In 1961 Ray Carnay was news director for the Balaban Radio Stations in Dallas. He was contacted by a man who asked to meet him at the KBOX news car at the Dallas-Garland airport. Over a period of 7-9 days this man continually expressed his pro-Castro views, and asked Carnay for the names of pilots. Following the assassination of President Kennedy, Carnay recognized and positively identified this man as Lee Harvey Oswald.

In October, 1961 New Orleans Levee Board Police Officer Charles Noto and his partner noticed two young men sitting together in a white panel truck late at night. The passenger in the truck identified himself as LEE Oswald and, after being questioned by Noto, asked to see the officer in charge. After a closed-door meeting with Marcel Champon, the officer in charge, Oswald was released. On October 12, 1961, the name LEE Oswald appears on a CIA document regarding one of their proprietary companies, Transcontinental SA, that was engaged in the import/export business.  All of these sightings, and many more, occurred when HARVEY Oswald was in Russia.

In the 1960s there were two young men living in and around Greenwich Village (in New York City) named "Steve Landesberg." Although they were similar in age and appearance, there were distinct differences between them. One boy, Stephen Harris Landesberg (the student), was from Queens. He was quiet, introverted, kept to himself, a bookworm, and an honor student. He had black hair, a life-long speech impediment, stuttered profusely when excited, never wore glasses, and had no southern accent. The other boy, Stephen Richard Landesberg (a future actor), from the Bronx, was outgoing, likable and gregarious. He had reddish brown hair, occasionally wore rimless eyeglasses, enjoyed being around people, had no speech impediment, and acquired a Southern accent that he could use or not use at will. In late 1961 and early 1962 Stephen Richard Landesberg became entangled in activities involving the harassment of liberal and minority-oriented political groups that were active in and around the Village. During this time he befriended and became involved with American-born Lee Oswald, while at the same time Harvey Oswald and Marina were living in Russia. In the 1970s Stephen Richard Landesberg gained notoriety as an actor on the TV show, Barney Miller. The actor's relationship with Oswald motivated a number of JFK researchers, including author Carleton W. Sterling, Professor Stan Weeber (UNT, Denton, TX), attorney Carol Hewitt, author/researcher Joachim Joesten, and myself to investigate the two "Steve Landesbergs." For more information on the Steven Landesberg story, click this link.

In April, 1962 LEE Oswald showed up at the Texas Employment Commission in Ft. Worth. He was given a written "General Aptitude Test" that was later forwarded to their Dallas office and noted on documentation published by the WC. HARVEY and Marina were still in Russia in April, 1962.

A few weeks later, on May 22, in Russia, the Zieger family accompanied HARVEY Oswald and Marina to the train station to begin their long journey to America. Can you imagine Marina's surprise when her husband, who never spoke Russian while in the Soviet Union, began speaking perfect Russian after arriving in America? In Ft. Worth, Texas the Oswald's lived briefly with Robert Oswald and his family. Robert's wife, Vada, who had been introduced to the tall, husky LEE Oswald by her husband in 1957 said of Lee HARVEY Oswald, "he lost his bull neck......" Apparently Vada never realized, or chose to ignore, that the young man she met in 1957 (LEE) was not the same man she met in 1962 (HARVEY). But Robert Oswald knew. Robert grew up with his tall, nice-looking mother and his brother LEE Oswald prior to joining the Marines in 1952. Following his discharge from the Marines in July, 1955, Robert lived with LEE and his mother at 126 Exchange in New Orleans. A year later Robert began living with HARVEY and the short, heavy-set Marguerite Oswald impostor at 4936 Collinwood in Ft. Worth in June, 1956. It was during this period (summer/fall, 1956) that Robert met and became engaged to Vada. But Robert never introduced his fiance to HARVEY or to the short, heavy-set Marguerite Oswald impostor prior to their marriage in November, 1956. Why would Robert introduce his future wife to people to whom he was not related?

After arriving in America HARVEY Oswald applied for a new passport, even though his passport was valid for another 3 years. Why? Because the US passport issued in 1959 had a photograph of LEE Oswald. The US passport issued in 1962 had a photograph of HARVEY Oswald.

1959 Passport

1963 Passport

In the 1970's CIA finance officer James B Wilcott testified before the HSCA. He said that in 1959 he worked out of the covert station in Japan and dispensed unvouchered funds for the "Oswald Project." The Oswald project, years in the making, was probably organized and handled by James Angleton of the Counter Intelligence/Special Investigations Group at CIA headquarters. But in order to place 2 Oswald's in the Marine Corps using the same serial number, often at the same time in different locations, it appears that certain members of the Office of Naval Intelligence were also involved. James Wilcott said Oswald's defection to the Soviet Union was phony and that Oswald was on an intelligence operation for the CIA. Wilcott said the cryptonym for the Oswald project was RX-XIM.  (Click here for more on Wilcott)